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HLTA02H3 Lecture Notes - Social Fact, Degenerative Disease, Sub-Saharan Africa

Health Studies
Course Code
Michelle Silver

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HLTB03: Foundations in Health Studies
Lecture 1:
Life expectancy at birth of both sexes:
# of years a given cohort (ie. Country/national state) is expected to live
-How is there variation?
Lot of variation in North America among highest – 80-83 yrs
Sub-Saharan Africa – people born in 2009 expected to live
<50 yrs
Reasons for variation in life expectancy?
Late Ice Age/ hunter gathers life expec. – 38 yrs
oSo L.E. varies by time and geographic location / cohort
According to world bank: Average L.E. of all countries on Earth = 70 yrs
Why is there variation?
Well over time makes sense b/c of higher standard of living then
hunter/gathers but in current time why is there a difference among countries?
oMedical facilities differ
oClimate disease that occur in some high temp. areas such as
oUniversal healthcare access to healthcare
oAdvancement of medical technologies
oFree healthcare systems
oAdvancement of medical technologies
oEconomic stability of country to be able to import/export goods
i.e. in Canada we have had climate to grow food but we are rich
enough to import goods
ophysical infrastructure sewages, roads, public infrastructure ; signal
stops etc.
oeducational system
opublic government / legal system
Reasons Explained by:
Epidemiological Transition:
oTheory of demographic transition: as economy changes from low to
high per capta income there is a transition from high mortality and
high fertility to low mortality and low fertility
oExplains L.E. now
-3 stages in pattern of disease which suggest:
1. That first we have age of pestilence and famine and communication have low
S.E.S. large external families and high rates of mortality
2. Then we shift towards industrial dominant age age of receding pandemics,
decrease in epidemics, and decrease in mortality, but still increase in fertility
rate, increase in terms of income, but still large families and decrease in
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