Lec 09: health promotion or power oppression, and to take action against the oppressive elements of society. Oppression: dehumanizing, cruel, unjust or exploitive treatment or exercise of authority. Critical consciousness: the ability to perceive social, political and economic. Empowerment: process through which people gain greater control over decisions and actions affecting their health. Policy: plans and procedures developed and implemented by governments, agencies, Public policy: a course of action or inaction, chosen by public authorities to address a. Health policy: a subset of public policy; focuses on addressing various health-related given problem or interrelated set of problems -- never neutral; not value-free issues. 1840+: sanitary phase - focus on environmental engineering to provide clean water, sanitation, improved housing, etc. 1910+: education - focus on educating the public about cleanliness, personal behaviour, and personal responsibility for their own ill-health and health. 1930+: therapeutic phase - medicalization of public health & strongly associated with the prevention of ill-health through biomedical interventions.