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Lecture 1

HLTB15H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Antipositivism, Postpositivism

Health Studies
Course Code
Mana Razai

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Lecture 1- Research paradigms
Research paradigms: set of beliefs/practices which regulate research
o Characterized by ontological, epistemological, methodological differences
o Paradigm: a framework for a set of beliefs
Research perspectives
o Interpretivist (qualitative)
Subjective epistemology
Many interpretations
Personal experience influences interpretations
Knowledge is made when insights emerge naturally from researcher-
participant interaction
Assumes study is never bias-free
Data is complex: research aims to understand how the researchers
thoughts, feelings might influence what they observe/record
Assumes meaning is mediated though many ways to understand lived
Advantages Vs. Disadvantages (slide 24)
o Positivist (quantitative)
Dominant in medical research
Deduce and test hypothesis
Aims to measure predetermined characteristics
Ontological assumption: reality exists objectively
Epistemological assumption: deductive form of reasoning
Assumes overarching patterns of human behavior
Little value on individual experience
Avoids data collected in natural settings- too many variables
Cyclic diagram
Key questions star with “what”, “why”
Advantages Vs. Disadvantages (slide 23)
o Alternative Interpretations
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