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Lecture 6

HLTB15H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Disability-Adjusted Life Year, General Idea, Life Table

2 pages110 viewsWinter 2014

Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB15H3
Professor
Lianne Tripp
Lecture
6

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Lecture 6 – HLTB15
- Z scores can tell us where there is a difference between two items. If the value is greater
than 1.96, we will say there is a statistical significance. When the found value is below
we accept the null hypothesis of no change.
- Based on example in class:
52.54 - 45.66 / square root of [(0.56)squared + (0.52)squared]
6.88 / square root of [0.584]
6.88 / 0.764
9.00
- Years of potential life lost (YPLL) is calculated for a specific cause of death and typically
range from thousands to millions. We won’t actually be able to calculate this on the
exam.
-Equation: YPLL = total of [person’s age at death – predetermined age at death
(which is 65 in the USA)]
- Tay Sach’s = always leads to death by the age of 3 or 4, it’s a neurodegenerative
disease, gene is passed on from parents.
- Example in class: What disease has the highest YPLL, Tay Sach’s or breast cancer?
ANSWER = Tay Sach’s (highest means the more likely to die earlier)
Defining Disability
- Disease  impairment  disability  handicap
- (DFLE) Disability free life expectancy – looks at number of years people live in a
population without a disability. You need to use a life table.
- (DALY) Disability-adjusted life years – 1 is healthy and 0 is unhealthy. Years of life lost
component and years of disability component.
- These do not take into account that some disabilities are reversible.
Observational studies
- Descriptive: just descriptive… look at mortality records or surveys; just observe rates.
- Most studies are observational studies.
- Ecological studies