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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 notes

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Lecture 5: Social Factors and
HLATA10-Social Factors and HealthJanuary 31th,
Social class: hierarchy
Socio Economic Status:
-can be measured (ie. Income level, educational achievement, owning a home vs.
-can look at people or communities
How Do Social Factors Impact Health?
There are 2 perspective
1.Social Causation Hypothesis
Factors associated with SES influence health
Mental and physical health
Lowest income people report lowest and poorest physical and mental health
(perceived health is looked at as a very good indicator to actually health)
Link between income and health
2.Selection Hypothesis
This follows pathway model of health
life course
As parental income increases, SAT scores increase
This is potentially bigger than social causation
One situation leads to another, and another, and another, etc.
-general idea- social factors do impact health
Psychosocial Stress-
-how does one cope with stress? (mediation and coping styles)
-coping really matters and mediating helps with the social factors and the impact on health
Crisis Theory
-always strive to equilibrium and normalcy
-based on cognitive appraisal model
-constant reappraisal is based on resources available
-what a person believes and how coping changes over time

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What helps in coping? Social, psychological and personality characteristics integrated, not
in isolation
Social Buffers:
social support having someone to offer you comfort in time of needs
Social capital - social support at the community level
Psychological Buffers:
Personality Buffers:
Self efficacy- how one feels about potential; about doing something; their self
esteem; internal control; ones thoughts about competency and success
Stressor Examples
Labelling sticks to a person and effects how people perceive them- sense of powerlessness
Social Stigma- societal level of labelling- reaction which leads to spoiled identity ie.
Society has an opinion about a condition, race, religion, etc.
2 Main Theories: Social Interactionism vs Symbolic Interactionism
Social- answer questions related to certain situations dealing with management,
interactions between various social factors; How do people manage factors?
Qualitative methods of research
Symbolic- answer questions how individuals feel to meaning of illness; effect of being
labelled on individuals; What is the meaning of illness to the individual?
Quantitative methods of research
Factors Related to Health Behaviour
*Health Related Behaviour Model
Sick Role Behaviour- getting better in order to achieve role in society- people are sick and
diagnosed but want to get better to fulfill their roles
Illness Behaviour- aimed at seeking treatment, but based on perception not diagnosis and
their reaction to symptoms
Health Behaviour- protecting health, maintain health, prevention of disease
Gender Theory- less males report problems
Cultural Theory- certain cultures report more than others
-there are differences in health promotion and reporting health and vice versa
*Culture of Poverty Explanation
-pooper people develop sense of powerlessness and fatalism therefore passive in life- will
know health is poor and say it and not much being done o fix it
-Gini Coefficient- measure of inequality from 0-1 (0=complete equality, 1= inequality in
Self rated health^
*Cost-Benefit Approach
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