Lecture 9 – Data Analysis
QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS
Goal: reveal patterns or themes
Different strategies with basic commonalities
How to determine what is important and how to formulate analytical conclusions?
Analysis and observation are interwoven!
First step: organization and processing of notes
Back and forth alternation between coding and interpretation
Two core procedures:
Coding –development of concepts and categories
Memoing – refers to the writing of notes and commentaries
Thematic Analysis – Coding
Classification of phenomena
-making sense of the mass of qualitative data
-identify as many ideas and themes as possible
Constant comparative method - comparing each piece of data with codes and notes
Opening up lines of inquiry!
Quality of the coding impacts the quality of theories
From Coding to Categories
Identification and naming of categories - ‘quality of healthcare' or ‘waiting time'
Sub-categories - ‘pain management' or ‘remission time'
-Strategies and tactics
-Consequences of actions
-Naming is important – loaded with previous meanings
e.g. ‘noisy', ‘noise' and ‘loud' have a different impact on thoughts
Categorization using Axial/Focused Coding
How are these themes useful?
How are they related?
Search for interactions and strategies
e.g. For ‘quality of life‘ --- ‘social activities’ ‘attended events’ & ‘feelings regarding
Can also be used to develop categories, seeking relationships that will expose a
Helps identify relationships between categories and the links that create a web of
Open coding --- identification / naming; axial coding --- links / relationships
Central code / principle around which other codes cluster
E.g. a study of seniors --- ‘quality of life‘; a study of teenagers --- 'growing up'
-Easy to relate to
-Moves ideas forward
-Gives central meaning to the research conclusions
1) Main theme of the situation and may represent a central problem or issue
Increased focused around the core category”
-looking for links to it
-how it may or may not be the heart of the matter
-Essential for integration!
Finding a third element outside of the cause and effect items to corroborate
Wilkes et al. 2009. Patient experience of infertility management in primary care:
an in-depth interview study
To explore the patient experience of infertility management from a primary care
Elements for Coding:
Boyatzis (1988)- 5 essential elements:
3) How to know when the theme
Qualifications or exclusions?
Examples to eliminate possible
Writing down these ideas and insights
Theoretical notes --- discovery of categories and may cause more exploration
Identify concepts, half-formed ideas, action notes - cohesiveness
Can be identified at any time
Corbin (1998): code notes, theoretical notes, operational notes
8) Code Notes9)
-Indicate the code labels
-Provide information on the meaning and definition
-Meanings in everyday language
-What is meant by the codes used in the analysis?
-Memos that elaborate conceptual meanings, connections, and relationships
-Lay out theoretical propositions
-Issues of method and procedure
Emerson et al. (1995)
-Initial memo – details series of discrete phenomena, topics, and categories
first step: organization and processing of notes. back and forth alternation between coding and interpretation. memoing refers to the writing of notes and commentaries. Making sense of the mass of qualitative data identify as many ideas and themes as possible. constant comparative method - comparing each piece of data with codes and notes already identified. quality of the coding impacts the quality of theories. identification and naming of categories - quality of healthcare" or waiting time" sub-categories - pain management" or remission time" Naming is important loaded with previous meanings e. g. noisy", noise" and loud" have a different impact on thoughts. search for interactions and strategies www. notesolution. com e. g. for quality of life --- social activities" attended events" & feelings regarding involvement". can also be used to develop categories, seeking relationships that will expose a category. helps identify relationships between categories and the links that create a web of meaning.