HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Radiography, Tuberculin, Isoniazid

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Published on 2 Dec 2012
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Lecture 5 Tuberculosis
History
Tuberculosis present since antiquity
Present in Egyptian mummies
“Phthisis” or “Consumption” were terms commonly used to refer to Tuberculosis
Hippocrates though tuberculosis was due to bad air but wasn’t contagious
Tuberculosis is documented in Egypt, India, and China about 5000, 3300, and 2300 years ago
respectively
Skeletal abnormalities and deformities in the spin are typical
Tuberculosis was limited to animals in prehistoric times and epidemics arose from changes in
the population and environment in which hosts resided
People with this disease believed to be beautiful, pale skin, red cheeks and thin figure
There were claims that the Royal family possessed supernatural powers capable of healing of
afflicted with Tuberculosis.
Queen Anne was the last Monarch to perform the Royal Touching/King’s Evil
In 1629 tuberculosis (consumption) was the leading cause of death in London
In peaked 1780 --> 20% of death was from tuberculosis
Franciscus D Sylvius discovered the lung nodules; tubercles
Not sure of spread of source of the disease
Benjamin Marten speculated that tuberculosis was contagious
1800’s tuberculosis spread to the rest of Europe and North America
During the 19th century tuberculosis was romanticized because people with tuberculosis were
seen as attractive and physically fit
1854 the idea that tuberculosis is a curable disease led to the creation of sanatoriums; a place
for people with tuberculosis to heal and rest
Jean Antoine Villemin speculated that a specific microorganism is the primary cause of
tuberculosis
Dr. Robert Koch discovered mycobacterium tuberculosis and developed the “tuberculin” test
Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen used X-rays to diagnose a person with tuberculosis
Technique still used to confirm a diagnosis of tuberculosis
Etiology
Agent: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis which is an acid fast bacillus
Three main types:
Type I found in India, and is the least virulent
Type A Africa, China, Japan, Europe, North America
Type B exclusively in Europe and North America
Forms of Tuberculosis (symptoms don’t really appear)
Several types of tuberculosis
Only Bovin type may lead to pulmonary tuberculosis (most common) or miliary tuberculosis
(acute)
Miliary tuberculosis is fatal within days or weeks, and infects all organs of the body
Tuberculosis is spread through the air by coughs or sneezes
Each sneeze can contain up to 100 000 droplets and each droplet has roughly 1 3 bacilli
Infection can remain dormant until resistance fails, resulting in the active form of the disease
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