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Lecture

HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Water Purification, Louis Pasteur, Chorea


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Lecture 9: Chorea
Until the 19th century
Contagionists
-Believed in the ‘germ theory’ announced by Pasteur (1862)
- Koch and Hansen
-Diseases spread from person to person by an infectious agent
Miasmatists
-Pettenkofer (1818 1901)
-factor in air (X) and factor in soil (Y) didn’t independently cause disease but when reacted together caused
miasma that caused disease
-steadfastly refused to believe in the germ theory
-drunk a vial of bacteria contaminated water
-may had have experienced chlorea and had some sort of immunity
-Disease caused by ‘bad vapors’
Epidemiology
-History of cholera is described as the history of pandemics
7 pandemics
1) 1816 1821: originated in India (River Ganges) and was spread by mainly by British troops, headquarters in
Bengal
2) Second pandemic: 1829 1851: more widespread, reaching Europe, Canada, and the US
- 1831 mortality of 13% in Cairo, Egypt
- 1832 3: 60,000 death in England disease known as ‘King Cholera’
- In 1849 called ‘America’s greatest scourge’
3) 1852 1859: Scientific advances in understanding Cholera
4) 1863 1873
5) 1881 1896: microbe for chlorea discovered; hygienic measures stopped its spread to N America because of of
increased hygene
6) 1899 1923: for the most part missed the western hemisphere
7) 1961 ongoing; Haiti, Dominican republic and Cuba
Series of epidemics:
-1961: Celebes Islands, Asia, Middle East
-1992: aboard a flight from S America to the US
-1990s: 200,000 in SE Asia
-1994: Zaire, killed 50,000 Rwandan refugees in 21 days
-2000: Africa
-Chlorea imported from various diseases
-Countries/areas reporting cholera and cases reported, by year, 19932003
-decrease in trend; .:. end of 7th pandemic
-Reported Cases
-resurfacing in northern hemisphere but lower compared to Europe
Etiology
-During the 5th epidemic (1883)
-Koch dispatched to Egypt to isolate the microbe
-Able to see the bacteria in feces of 12 patients
-Vibrio cholerae (due to its vibrating wiggles)
-Incubation period few hours to 5 days
-139 different serogroups
-V. cholerae must itself be infected with two viruses:
-One has a gene that codes for the cholera toxin (cause of diarrhea)
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