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Lecture

HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Exanthem, Antibiotics, Measles Virus


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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HLTA01 Lecture 07
Measles were not mentioned by Hippocrates
Attributed to Rhazes (900 AD) associated with a Persian scientist and he believed
smallpox and measles came from the same cause
Aka = rubeola, hard, measles, red measles, morbilli, hasbah
Prevailing theory = red rash represented the mother’s menstrual blood accumulated
during pregnancy and when the person gets rid of the measles it was thought they got
rid of the “poison”
Origins of term “measles” = ‘misellus’ or ‘misella’ i.e. miserable
Modern history of measles:
1670- Thomas Sydenham’s, he was the first to clinically distinguish between
smallpox and measles; did all this through his son’s attack
Around this time they rejected the mother’s blood theory
1757 Francis Homes demonstrated the infective nature by transmitting infected
blood from a child and injected into other uninfected child
Encephalitis complication of the brain results from measles, herpes virus,
chickenpox etc.
Peter Ludwig Panum
a scientist sent by the Danish government to investigate the epidemic in Faeroe Isles
first epidemiological study
geographically this place is ideal for epidemiology (roughly between Iceland and
Scotland)
why it was an ideal place = lots of mountains causing clustered population, lots of
island so movements of boats and people from island to island, weather is cool and
damp
how he did this investigation and what helped him: arrival of a boat noted, visits
from mainland were rare, epidemic originated in a single seaman and upon arrival
he had not recovered and became infectious, and this helped him find the path of the
epidemic and found four important facts
1. rash appears 12-14 days after contact with an infected person; gave an
indication of an incubation period
2. infectivity is the greatest 2-4 days before the rash appears and still infectious
until the rash leaves
3. contagious nature of disease respiratory route of transmission, droplets
4. life-long immunity; once you had it, you don’t fall sick again from this disease
Hektoen (1910) demonstrated that measles was present in the blood, and this is how it
move through the body
John Enders (1963) successful in isolating the virus and producing vaccine to prevent
this disease
1969 - Relationship between measles and sub-acute sclerosing pan-encephalitis (=
develops 5-10 years after acute measles)
Etiology of measles:
Belongs to paramyxoviridae
Genus mobillivirus
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