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HLTB21H3 (200)
Lecture 6

Lecture 6 Notes.


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Lecture
6

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HLTA031H3: Plagues and People
Tuesday, June 21 2011
Lecture SIX
Lectures 1-6 are on the midterm.
Origin:
-Old world
disease, and
indiscriminate disease.
-Other related
diseases to small pox
-With
domestication it may
have been behind the
origins
-10 000 BCE
, first agricultural
settlements in NE
Africa and spread to
India by means of
merchants
-(earliest
evidence on Egyptian
mummies , Pharoh
Rames V (1156 BC)
pockmarks
-Mentioned in
ancient texts of India ,
and China
-100 AD – plague
of Antonine (may have
to do with small pox)
decline of the Roman
Empire
-In England and
Europe it became a
serious disease in
England (16th), and
frequent epidemic
during Middle Ages
Effects of Smallpox
Plague of
Antonine
Introduced to the
new world in the 16th
century fall of the
empire of the Aztecs
and the Incas (191-192)
Contributed to
the settlement of N
America by the French
and English (1617)
(eastern cost , because
native people died
because of the
introduction of the
disease)
Biological
warfare: French-
Indian War (1754-1767)
deliberate use of
smallpox; using
blankets to get rid of
Indians.
Slave Trade :
American-Indians were
working for people ,
labour force had to be
supplemented because
American-Indians were
susceptible towards
small pox; this led way
for columnists to bring
in African Americans
(this FURTHER ,
brought new cases
because it was an
epidemic in Africa)
Etiology:
Large virus :
Genus-
Orthopoxvirus , family
Poxviridae
200 genes , 35 of
them are virulent
Common Name :
Variola Virus
Variola Major :
more virulent ;
mortality 30 percent,
or higher 3 % in
vaccinated.
Variola Minor :
less severe form of
small pox ; mortality
2%Orthopoxvirus :
monkeypox,cowpox,
camelpox,chickenpox,
and ectromelia (mouse
pox)
Zoonotic
(monkey) is very
similar to small pox
Hemorrahigic
small pox or black
pox : internal bleeding
into all internal
organs ; mortality 95%
; may develop in 5 to
10 % of infected
individuals
TRANSMISSION
-continuous
transmission
required
-short term
carriers
-animal
reservoirs
do not exist
(only
human to
human
-Direct
Contact :
inhalation
of aerosols
or
contaminate
d objects
-Virus
multiplies
in the
mucous
membrane
of the
mouth and
nose =
lymph
nodes =
internal
organs= re-
enters the
blood
stream
-Infectious
virus :
aerosol
secretion
and in skin
scabs.
-Potential for
long-
distance
aerosol
spread is
controversia
l.
-virus is
viable up to
2 days
outside
human
-transmissio
n on objects
, can only
live for
TWO
DAYS.
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