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Health studies Lecture 1

6 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Health studies: Lecture 1 Definitions:  Parasites: it is an organism that can’t live on its own  Needs a host to survive, but causes harm Ex.  Viruses: not an organism made of genetic material and wrapped in genetic protein and single celled  Needs a host to reproduce/Ultimate micro parasite  Micro-parasites: composed of many cells  Transmitted through eggs and larvae  Transmission: movement if parasite from one host to another  Incubation Period: Time required to develop disease  Pathogen preparing for replication(measles)  Latent period: Period of time of exposure occurring long time ago, but is inactive period  (syphilis ,measles)  Parasite virulence: capacity of a parasite to cause disease on whole population  (SARS)  Zoonotic infections: Animal infections that can be transmitted to humans  Disease: State where health on individual has been impacted What are the main factors the influence the occurrence of a disease? : Host Agent Environment Host: Agent: Environment:  Immunity  Ecological  Promote exposure  Genetics  Physical (Contaminated air, etc.)  Nutrition  Phscosocial (Rate of growth ,ex. Fire) Example: A person develops severe cramps after drinking from a well located on a cattle farm  Host: person  Agent: Unknown something inside the water  Environment: Water inside the well (CONTAMINATED) Modes of Transmission:  Direct Transmission: Person to person  Indirect: Common route/vector  Ex.(Contaminated air, water, mosquito) Portal of entity:  Dermal: The skin  Ex.(lungs)  Ingestion: The mouth  EX. (E-coli in water)  Inhalation: during respiration  Ex. (Particular matter)  Aspiration: Airway entry  Ex. (vomiting while sleeping) Types of diseases:  Broad spectrum of disease severity o ICE BERG CONCEPT: classical and severe disease Moderate severity of mild illness¸ Infectious without clinical illness:(Asymptotic infection) Exposure without infection Types of diseases Cont`d:  Tuberculosis: Infectious disease  Contracted: In the lungs  Measles: Common skin rash  Transmitted: From respiration  Rabies: Affect central nervous system  Transmitted: Thorough salvia Types of disease outbreaks:  Three main types: 1. Endemic: usual occurrence of a disease within a given geographic area 2. Epidemic: occurrence of a disease in excess of normal expectancy 3. Pandemic: worldwide epidemic Determinants of disease outbreaks:  Number of people immune to a disease VS.  Number of people susceptible at risk of disease Incubation Period:  Attack Rate: Ratio of the number of people in the world who has
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