HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Smallpox, Orthopoxvirus, Ramesses V

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Published on 31 Oct 2010
School
UTSC
Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTB21H3
Disease Origins
-Believed to have appeared around 10,000BC, at the time of the first agricultural settlements in
NE Africa and spread to India by means of ancient Egyptian merchants
-Earliest evidence of skin lesions resembling those of smallpox on Egyptian mummies (1570 -
1085 BC)
-The mummified head of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses V (died 1156 BC) bears evidence of teh
disease
-Concurrently, smallpox has been reported in ancient Asian cultures, described 1122 BC in
China and is mentioned in ancient texts of India
-Introduced to Europe between the fifth and seventh centuries and was frequently epidemic
during the Middle ages
Effects of Smallpox
-plague of Antonine - decline of the Roman Empire (AD 108)
-Introduction by the Spanish and Portugese led to the decimation of the local population and
was instrumental in the fall of the empire of the Aztees and the Incas
-Eastern coast of North America. the disease was introduced by the early settlers and led to a
decline in the native population
-Biological warfare
-French-indian war (1754-1767)
-Commander of the British forces in North America (Amherst), suggested the deliberate use of
smallpox to diminish the American Indian population hostile to the British
-Slave trade also contributed to the spread of smallpox in N. America
Etiology
-Genus - Orthopoxvirus, family Poxviridae
-Common name - Variola virus
-At least 2 strains exist: variola major (more virulent) and variola minor
-The Orthopoxvirus genus also include the monkeypox, cowpox, camelpox, chickenpox, and
ectromelia (mousepox) viruses
-Variola minor is a milder disease - mortality rate is approximately 1% in unvaccinated person
-Overall mortality rate for variola major is 3% in vaccinated individuals and 30% in
unvaccinated
-Malignant and hemorrhagic forms of variola major develop in approximately 5-10% of infected
people. These forms are almost always fatal; the mortality in the malignant forms is 95%.
-Hemorrhagic smallpox also known as black pox - accompanied by extensive bleeding into the
skin, mucous membranes and gastrointestinal tract
-In the past, serious vaccine complications occurred in approximately 100 per million primary
vaccinations.
Transmission
-Must be continuously transmitted from human to human to survive
-Humans do not become long-term carriers
-Animal reservoirs do not exist
-Spread by direct contact or inhalation of aerosols
-Infectious virus is present in oronasal secretions and in skin scabs
Lecture 6 - Smallpox Feb 10, 2010
1
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Document Summary

Believed to have appeared around 10,000bc, at the time of the rst agricultural settlements in. Ne africa and spread to india by means of ancient egyptian merchants. Earliest evidence of skin lesions resembling those of smallpox on egyptian mummies (1570 - The mummi ed head of the egyptian pharaoh ramses v (died 1156 bc) bears evidence of teh disease. Concurrently, smallpox has been reported in ancient asian cultures, described 1122 bc in. China and is mentioned in ancient texts of india. Introduced to europe between the fth and seventh centuries and was frequently epidemic during the middle ages. Plague of antonine - decline of the roman empire (ad 108) Introduction by the spanish and portugese led to the decimation of the local population and was instrumental in the fall of the empire of the aztees and the incas. Eastern coast of north america. the disease was introduced by the early settlers and led to a decline in the native population.