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Lecture 8

HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Giovanni Battista Grassi, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, Sub-Saharan Africa


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Lecture
8

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History
-One of the oldest diseases known to mankind that continues to have huge social, economical
and health consequences in many countries
-Earliest records found in the Chinese medical text, the “Nei Chang” (2700 BC)
-The Hippocratic corpus was the first document to mention the splenic change in malaria and
related malaria to ingestion of stagnant water:
“those who drink [stagnant water] have always large, stiff spleens and hard, thin, hot
stomachs, while their shoulders, collarbones, and faces are emaciated; the fact is that their flesh
dissolves to feed the spleen...”
-Belief that the fever recurred during the sickly summer season - resulting from poisonous
vapours that emante from the marshes - mal’aria i.e. ‘bad air
-Reached Spain and Russia by the 12th century and England by the 14th Century
-Brought to the new world by European explorers, colonists, and Africans
-By the 1800s it was worldwide
-Dante [1265-1321] wrote about malaria: “As one who has the shivering of the quartan so near,
that he has his nails already pale, and trembles all, still keeping the shade, such I became when
those words were uttered.” (The Inferno) He died of malaria
-William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616), mentioned “argue” (english word for malaria) in 8 of his
plays
-Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922) - first to observe black-brown malaria pigment
and mobile filaments emerging from clear spherical bodies in the red blood cells of infected
blood - a process he called exflagellation (1880)
-First to identify the malaria parasite
-1883 - Robert Koch, developed an interest in malaria and the role of the mosquito during his
visit to India. In 1898, he went to Italy and argued that human malaria was caused by a
mosquito bite but was unsuccessful in his efforts
Ronald Ross&Patrick Manson
-Mentored by Manson, Ross performed a series of experiments designed to establish the link
between malaria and mosquitoes
-Ross examined the stomachs of thousands of mosquitos
-He observed wartlike oocysts that developed 4-5 days after feeding on infected blood and the
stripes or ridges that develop in them 7-8 days later
-He discovered the infectious stages in the mosquito salivary glands in sparrows
-In September 1898, Italian physician Giovanni Battista Grassi was able to report that the
Anopheles claviger, was the carrier of human malaria
Epidemiology (WHO, 2006)
-Killed more than half the people who have ever lived on this planet
-Every 10-30 seconds a person dies of malaria
-300-500 M cases of malaria each year (90% in Africa)
-2-3M deaths annually
-Of these deaths, the overwhelming majority is among children aged 5 years or younger
-Anopheles mosquitoes must be present
-WHO reports that malaria is currently endemic in over 100 countries, which are visited by
more than 125 million international travelers annually
Lecture 8 - Malaria
1
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