HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Oral Rehydration Therapy, Measles Virus

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTB21H3
Professor
HLTA01 Measles 26/02/2013 7:24:00 AM
Rubeola
10 day measles
English measles
Red measles
Hard measles
o Rubella (German measles)
o Roseola
History of Measles
Sufficient population sizes to support measles did not exist prior to
2500 BC
o No record before that
o Cannot exist due to small population sizes
Confused with smallpox and other rash diseases for much of history
Rhazes differentiated between measles and smallpox in 910 AD
o Smallpox and measles were confused even though it looks
different
o There are variability of diseases that are often confused in the
pass
Peter Panum
1846- the Faroe Island is easy for him to study
o there are around 8000 people
6100 / 7864 inhabitants infected
102 deaths
Virgin population for 65 years no immunity
o Anybody who became in contact with these people will be
susceptible to the disease
Faroe Islands
Visits from mainland were rare and well documented
o Because it was really rare
Epidemic originated with a single arriving sailor
4 key facts:
o Rash appears 12-14 days after contact with infected person
o Infectivity greatest 3-4 days before rash appears
o Respiratory transmission
o Life-long immunity
Paramyxovirus (Pathogen)
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Morbillivirus
o Similar viruses infect many animal species, but measles is
specific to humans no reservoirs
It’s a benefit when it comes to vaccination
o Highly infectious
90% would be infected when it comes into contact
o Respiratory transmission , close personal contact or direct
contact with secretions
Can be infectious 4 days before symptoms appear
o Natural infection creates life-long immunity
Infants can get immunity from mother that last 6
months
Host Risk Factors
Anyone not immunized
o There are 2 schedule for MMR
Children <5 yrs
Malnutrition
o Affect ability to be infected
Vitamin A insufficiency
HIV/AIDS or immunecompromised
Pregnancy for both mother and baby
Environmental Risk Factors
Weak health infrastructure
Countries recovering from natural disaster or conflict
o When individuals are crowed in a area (high population
density) and when the population is not vaccinated
Clinical Symptoms
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red spot with a white dot in the center
rash start from forehead down
fever could be go higher than 106
the rash fade the same order as it starts
Complications
30% of all measles cases develop complications:
o Pneumonia leading cause of death
o Ear infections in 10% of cases which may cause permanent
hearing loss
o Diarrhea causing dehydration
Children that are malnourish could die
o Eye infections may cause blindness
o Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
Fatal degenerative neurological disease
Could show up from 1month to 27 years
Cause by measles virus in the brain
Are rare but can happen
Treatment
No antiviral treatment exists for measles
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Document Summary

Hard measles: rubella (german measles) , roseola. Sufficient population sizes to support measles did not exist prior to. 2500 bc: no record before that, cannot exist due to small population sizes. Confused with smallpox and other rash diseases for much of history. Rhazes differentiated between measles and smallpox in 910 ad: smallpox and measles were confused even though it looks different, there are variability of diseases that are often confused in the pass. 1846- the faroe island is easy for him to study: there are around 8000 people. Virgin population for 65 years no immunity: anybody who became in contact with these people will be susceptible to the disease. Visits from mainland were rare and well documented: because it was really rare. Epidemic originated with a single arriving sailor. 4 key facts: rash appears 12-14 days after contact with infected person, infectivity greatest 3-4 days before rash appears, respiratory transmission, life-long immunity.

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