HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Father Damien, Gerhard Armauer Hansen, Mycobacterium Leprae

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTB21H3
Professor
HLTA01 Leprosy note 12/02/2013 9:28:00 AM
Bacteria: Mycobacterium leprae
AKA: Hansen’s disease
History
Discovered by: Norewegian microbiologist Dr. Gerhard Armauer
Hansen in 1873
o True leprosy is a chronic debilitating and disfiguring infection
Written Historical Accounts:
o 1550 BC Egyptian papyrus
o 1200 BC Atharvaveda identify the germ responsible for it
identify a plant that could treat leprosy
o 326 BC Greece records the return of Alexander the Great
from India/Pakistan
brought back leprosy with his troops
cause of Alexander’s death- malaria
o Hippocratic texts provide no evidence that true leprosy
existed in ancient Greece, but the word lepra is the origin of
the name of the disease
Archeological evidence: 2000BC
o In India- found male, in late 30s found to have leprosy
Bone is remodelled
nasal spine was missing
Found infection on the forehead
Miss all but one tooth
The first archaeological evidence for leprosy
Initial causes of leprosy
o Recorded in Old Testament of Leviticus
Curse from God
Hereditary
Miasmatic
Infectious
Mystical
o In High Middle Ages (AD 1100-1300)
Consider dead to society
Cast to leprosaria or isolation hospital
Forms of Stigmatization
Loss of social/civic status and rights
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o Left unable to remarry
Special clothes
o Clothes have to be ripe or torn. Not allow to take care of
themselves
o Wear different colour
Carry and ring a bell
o Ring bell to warn people thy are going
Separate hospitals
Often had to live in colonies
o Lazaretto/Lazar House where people with leprosy were cast
out to without return
o Leprosarium/Leper Colony
Mass Separation
o In Kalaupapa Molokai there are a fin area that was
separated by cliff and mountain
First documented case in Hawaii in 1848
1866 first leprosy patients sent to Molokai
People would throw the patient and supplies
overboard and they must swim back to the island
with the supplies
o Saint Damien de Veuster
Father Damien arrived in 1873, aged 33
Tries to humanize the treatment of the disease but
caught it
Catholic missionary priest from Belgium
Died in 1889 of leprosy
Live in the leprosy colonies
o In Canada: D’arcy Island
1894 to 1924
First case among Chinese railway laborers
D Arcy island Leper Colony
Everyone who went was consider curse
Reserved for Chinese railway
Supply ship every 3 months
food, clothing, opium & coffins
it is an insanity condition and inhumane
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- It is close in 1987
The Leper in Medieval Islamic society
exist in the middle ages
first important figure in Arab: Jadhimah al-Abrash or al-Waddah,
king of al-Hirah
second important figure: poet: al-Harith ibn Hillizah al-Yashkuri
terminology for Leprosy: judham
o meant to mutilate or to cut off
leprosy was view as punishment from god
passage from at-Tabari: al-Walid to segregate lepers
o he built the first maristan or hospital in 88/707
Christian established xenodochia-house for the unwanted
Al-Jahiz is the muslim book for diseases and physical infirmities
o Mention leprosy twice
Political Figure contacted the disease: Abd al-Aziz the king (lion-
sickness)
Cure? In hot spring. E.g Baths of Elijah- to be cleanse
Muslim hospital was hawsh al-qa atilah or enclosure for the
diseased, commonly understood to be syphilis and leprosy
Leprosy was common in the coutry side from medieval to moderm
times
Qur an does not incriminate the diseased: the blind, lame, sick, and
it is permissible for all men to gather and eat together
o Separated but not stigmatized
Medieval Europe- leper are bad-temperered and oversexed
Medieval islam- the disease of the soul- entailed both a civil and
religious death
Epidemiology
Mycobacterium tuberculosis related to leprosy
Tuberculosis increase with population while leprosy decreases
No evidence of leprosy exist in the Western hemisphere, Australia
or oceanic island before introduced form the old world
Associated cause of death in leprosaria: Tuberculosis
Etiology
Pathogen: Mycobacterium Leprae
o Rod-shaped bacteria
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Document Summary

Discovered by: norewegian microbiologist dr. gerhard armauer. Hansen in 1873: true leprosy is a chronic debilitating and disfiguring infection. Written historical accounts: 1550 bc egyptian papyrus, 1200 bc atharvaveda identify the germ responsible for it identify a plant that could treat leprosy, 326 bc greece records the return of alexander the great from india/pakistan. Cause of alexander"s death- malaria: hippocratic texts provide no evidence that true leprosy existed in ancient greece, but the word lepra is the origin of the name of the disease. Archeological evidence: 2000bc: in india- found male, in late 30s found to have leprosy. Bone is remodelled nasal spine was missing. Initial causes of leprosy: recorded in old testament of leviticus. Mystical: in high middle ages (ad 1100-1300) Loss of social/civic status and rights: left unable to remarry. Special clothes: clothes have to be ripe or torn. Not allow to take care of themselves: wear different colour.

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