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HLTB21H3 (204)
Lecture

lecture 4

4 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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History of tuberculosis/white plague
- since antiquity
- Egyptian mummies from 2400 BC
- phthisis or consumption (Greek literature)
- Hippocrates - most widespread and fatal disease
Æ
suggestion that TB was limited to animals until domestication of cattle/other
animals
Æ
changes in the host population and environment - led to TB
- Contagion - caused by invisible germs in the lungs
- prevalence increased dramatically in 16th - 18th (Europe, North America)
- Consumption (1629) - 20% of all deaths in London
- 1679 Franciscus Delaboe Sylvius - lung nodules tubercles
- 1720 Benjamin Marten - germ theory may be communicable from one individual
to another
- 1839 tuberculosis
- 1854 Dr. Hermann Brehmer - Tuberculosis is a Curable Disease
Æ
sanatorium in
Silesia, Germany
- rest, fresh air, good nutrition and isolation
- treatment-specializing in diagnosis and recovery of patients
- 1854 Jean-Antoine Villemin - microorganism as the cause of the disease
- 1882 Dr. Robert Koch -- mycobacterium tuberculosis (same bacterium as the one
that caused leprosy)
- 1895 Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen - use of radiation to access the progression of
disease
- 1920-1950
Æ
know more with the improvement of technology
- mass screening programs implemented based on: tuberculin, x-rays
- Koch
Æ
can find out if someone has tuberculosis (lesions of the disease)
Etiology
- agent: tubercle bacillus germ mycobacterium tuberculosis - acid-fast bacillus
(treated with different dyes and is not decolorized on subsequent treatment with a
mineral acid)
- 3 main types of human bacillus:
Type 1 - found in India; least virulent
Type A - Africa, China, Japan, Europe, North America
Type B - Exclusively in Europe and North America
(moves up from 1
Æ
A
Æ
B)
- animal forms of the bacillus
- only bovine types can affect humans
Æ
ingested through
digestive tract
via milk
and milk products
Æ
may lead to pulmonary TB (most common)
Æ
may lead to miliary tuberculosis - acute form that forms grain-like tubercles in
almost every organ of the body
- infants/young children
- fatal within few weeks/days
- contracted
Æ
affects lungs but can spread to other parts of the body (central
nervous system, bones, joints)
- spread through air by coughs or sneezes
- droplet nuclei (airborne particles) can contain 1-3 bacilli
Æ
inhaled, and can infect
- sneeze = 100 000 droplets
- when enter the body, bacilli can remain viable throughout the hosts lifetime
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Description
Hist ory of tuberc ulosisw hite plague - since antiquity - Egyptian mu mmi es from 2400 BC - phthisis or consumption (Greek literat ure) - Hippo crates - most widespr ead and fatal disease suggestion that TB was lim ited to animals until domestication of cattleother animals changes in the host population and environm ent - led to TB - Contagion - caused by invisible germs in the lungs - prevalence increased dram atically in 16 th- 18th(Europ e, Nort h America) - Consumption (1629) - 20% of all deaths in London - 1679 Franciscu s Delaboe Sylvius - lung nodules tubercles - 1720 Ben jamin Marten - germ theory may be comm unicable from one individual to another - 1839 tuberculosis - 1854 Dr. Her ma nn Brehmer - Tuberculosis is a Curable Disease sanatorium in Silesia, Ger ma ny - rest, fresh air, good nutrition and isolation - treatmen t-spe cializing in diagnosis and recovery of patients - 1854 Jean-Antoine Villemin - microorg anism as the cause of the disease - 1882 Dr. Robert Koch -- mycobacterium tuberculosis (same bacterium as the one that caused lepros y) - 1895 Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen - use of radiation to access the prog ression of disease - 1920 -195 0 know mo re with the imp rovemen t of technology - mass screening programs implemented based on: tuberculin, x-rays - Koch can find out if someone has tuberculosis (lesions of the disease) Et iology - agent: tubercle bacillus germ mycobacterium tuberculosis - acid-fast bacillus (treated with different dyes and is not decolorized on subsequent treatment with a mineral acid) - 3 main types of hum an bacillus: Typ e 1 - found in India; least virulent Typ e A - Africa, China, Japan, Europe, North America Type B - Exclusively in Europe and North America (mo ves up from 1 A B) - animal form s of the bacillus - only bovine types can affect hum ans ingested through digestive tra ct via milk and milk products may lead to pulmonary TB (most com mon) may lead to milia ry tuberculosis - acute form that form s grain-like tubercles in almost every org an of the body - infantsy oung children - fatal within few weeksdays - contrac ted affects lungs but can spread to other part s of the body (central nervous system, bones, joints) - spread through air by coughs or sneezes - drop let nuclei (airborn e part icles) can contain 1-3 bacilli inhaled, and can infect - sneeze = 100 000 droplets - when enter the body, bacilli can remain viable throu ghout the hosts lifetime www.notesolution.com
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