Class Notes (1,200,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
HLTB21H3 (200)
Lecture

lecture 4


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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History of tuberculosis/white plague
- since antiquity
- Egyptian mummies from 2400 BC
- phthisis or consumption (Greek literature)
- Hippocrates - most widespread and fatal disease
Æ
suggestion that TB was limited to animals until domestication of cattle/other
animals
Æ
changes in the host population and environment - led to TB
- Contagion - caused by invisible germs in the lungs
- prevalence increased dramatically in 16th - 18th (Europe, North America)
- Consumption (1629) - 20% of all deaths in London
- 1679 Franciscus Delaboe Sylvius - lung nodules tubercles
- 1720 Benjamin Marten - germ theory may be communicable from one individual
to another
- 1839 tuberculosis
- 1854 Dr. Hermann Brehmer - Tuberculosis is a Curable Disease
Æ
sanatorium in
Silesia, Germany
- rest, fresh air, good nutrition and isolation
- treatment-specializing in diagnosis and recovery of patients
- 1854 Jean-Antoine Villemin - microorganism as the cause of the disease
- 1882 Dr. Robert Koch -- mycobacterium tuberculosis (same bacterium as the one
that caused leprosy)
- 1895 Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen - use of radiation to access the progression of
disease
- 1920-1950
Æ
know more with the improvement of technology
- mass screening programs implemented based on: tuberculin, x-rays
- Koch
Æ
can find out if someone has tuberculosis (lesions of the disease)
Etiology
- agent: tubercle bacillus germ mycobacterium tuberculosis - acid-fast bacillus
(treated with different dyes and is not decolorized on subsequent treatment with a
mineral acid)
- 3 main types of human bacillus:
Type 1 - found in India; least virulent
Type A - Africa, China, Japan, Europe, North America
Type B - Exclusively in Europe and North America
(moves up from 1
Æ
A
Æ
B)
- animal forms of the bacillus
- only bovine types can affect humans
Æ
ingested through
digestive tract
via milk
and milk products
Æ
may lead to pulmonary TB (most common)
Æ
may lead to miliary tuberculosis - acute form that forms grain-like tubercles in
almost every organ of the body
- infants/young children
- fatal within few weeks/days
- contracted
Æ
affects lungs but can spread to other parts of the body (central
nervous system, bones, joints)
- spread through air by coughs or sneezes
- droplet nuclei (airborne particles) can contain 1-3 bacilli
Æ
inhaled, and can infect
- sneeze = 100 000 droplets
- when enter the body, bacilli can remain viable throughout the hosts lifetime
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