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Lecture 7

lecture 7

2 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Measles
Æ
History
- origin of measles is unknown
- Rhazes (900 AD) separated smallpox and measles
- THOUGHT red rash represented the mothers menstrual blood that accumulates in
the womb
- disease was welcomed - get rid of the poison in a child
- 1670 with Thomas Sydenham (father of clinical observation) described sons
attack of measles
- distinguished measles and smallpox
- complications: crancum oris (noma: disease that leads to the destruction of tissue
around the mouth) and encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
Æ
viral encephalitis - develop during/after infection with several viral illnesses -
influenza, herpes, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, chickenpox and west nile
Æ
noma - damage cannot be reversed
- rejected mothers blood theory
- 1757 Francis Home - infective nature of measles - succeeded in transmitting
measles using blood from an infected child
Æ
infectious stages
- Peter Ludwig Panum 1846 - Danish - geographical location (17 isolated islands,
Norwegian Sea & North Atlantic Ocean halfway between Scotland and Iceland with
population of 7800)
- Danish visitor from Copenhagen - developed on boat
- epidemic traveled from island to island through people/boats
Æ
rash appears 12 to 14 days after contact with an infected person
(incubation period)
Æ
infectivity is greater 3 to 4 days before the rash appears
Æ
contagious nature of disease, probably spread by droplets and not miasmic
in origin
Æ
life-long immunity
- 1910 Hektoen identified the virus
- 1963 Enders was able to grow the virus and produce an effective vaccine
- 1969 relationship between measles and a rare degenerative disease of the nervous
system of children (sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis)
Æ
Etiology
- paramyxovirus - viruses that contain RNA
- infects respiratory epithelium
- transmitted via respiratory droplets through coughing, sneezing and
direct
contact
(4 days before until 4 days after the rash appears), makes way into
respiratory system & grows
- incubation period - 7 to 14 days
- highly contagious
- humans are the only hosts
- infants receives antibodies transplacentally if mother has measles - protective for
the first year of life
- lifelong immunity
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Description
Mea sles History - origin of measles is unknown - Rhazes (900 AD) separat ed smallpox and measles - THOU GHT red rash represented the mo thers menstrual blood that accumulates in the womb - disease was welcomed - get rid of the poison in a child - 1670 with Thomas Sydenha m (father of clinical observation) described sons attack of measles - distinguished measles and smallpox - complications: crancum oris (noma: disease that leads to the destruction of tissu e around the mouth) and encephalitis (inflamm ation of the brain) viral encephalitis - develop duringafter infection with several viral illnesses - influenza , herpes, measles, mum ps, rubella, rabies, chickenpox and west nile nom a - dama ge cannot be reversed - rejec ted mo thers blood theory - 1757 Francis Home - infective nature of mea sles - succeeded in transmitting measles using blood from an infected child infectious stages - Peter Ludwig Panum 1846 - Danish - geographical location (17 isolated islands, Norw egian Sea & Nort h Atlantic Ocean halfway between Scotland and Iceland with population of 7800 ) - Danish visitor from Copenha gen - developed on boat
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