lecture 9

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2 Nov 2010
- Malaria
- one of the oldest
- continues to have huge social, economical, and health consequences in many
- endemic into cycles or is imported from these endemic areas
- earliest records Chinese -- Nei Chang 2700 BC
- Hippocratic corpus was the first document to mention the splenic change in malaria
and related to ingestion of stagnant water
[large, stiff spleens and hard, thin, hot stomachs, while their shoulders,
collarbones, and faces are emaciated]
- miasmatists, belief that the fever recurred during the sickly summer season --
poisonous vapours that emanate from the marshes -- bad air
- reached Spain and Russia by 12th century, England by 14th
- 18th century
- brought to the new world by European explorers, colonists, and Africans
- Dante [1265-1321], Shakespeare [1564-1616] "ague"
- Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922) -- black-brown malaria pigming and
mobile filaments emerging from clear spherical bodies in the red blood cells of
infected blood [exflagellation 1880]
- first to identify the malaria parasite
- Koch - 1883 - developed an interest in malaria and the role of the mosquito during
his visit to India
-- 1898
- Ronald Ross & Patrick Manson
- Manson believed that malaria was transmitted after one drinks dirty water
infected with mosquitoes (decaying and breathing of mosquitoes breathing in the
water) -- proved
not to be true
- Ross examined the stomach of thousands of mosquitoes
- observed wartlike oocysts that developed 4-5 days after feeding on infected
blood and the stripes or ridges that develop in them 7-8 days later
- discovered the infectious stages in the mosquito salivary glands in sparrows
- mosquitoes bit birds, and got infected
- September 1898 - (Italian) Giovanni Battista Grassi was able to report that
the Anopheles claviger was the carrier of human malaria
(WHO, 2006)
- killed more than half of the people who have ever lived on this planet
- a person dies of malaria every 10-30 seconds
- 300-500 million cases each year (90% in Africa)
- 2-3 million deaths annually
- overwhelming majority of deaths are of children 5 years or younger
- Anopheles mosquitoes must be present -- 30 only transmit this parasite
- WHO reports that malaria is currently endemic in over 100 countries - attracts 125
million int'l travellers every year
- most prevalent in rural tropical areas below elevations of 1000 metres
- can be in temperate areas
- Plasmodium falciparum is found mostly in the tropics and along with Plasmodium
vivax accounts for 95% of malarial infections diagnosed worldwide
- Plasmodium vivax is distributed more widely than Plasmodium falciparum but it
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