lecture 11

37 views3 pages
2 Nov 2010
School
Department
Course
L11
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Æ
attacks the immune system resulting in chronic,
progressive illness
- leaves people vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers
- results in AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
Æ
when the body can no
longer fight infections
- on average - it takes more than 10 years for the disease to progress HIV
Æ
AIDS
Etiology
- retrovirus
- contains an enzyme 'reverse transcriptase'
- replicates to produce viral DNA from its RNA genome
- HIV-1, found throughout the world
- 1981 in United States --
- HIV-2, primarily found in West Africa - where virus may have been in circulation
since the 1960s and 1970s
- both types have several subtypes
Modes of Transmission
- must enter the bloodstream
- unprotected sex
- occupational exposure in health care settings
- the sharing of needles or equipment for injecting drugs, tattooing, skin
piercing or acupuncture
- pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding (from an HIV-infected mother to her
infant)
- mainly depends on behavioural, occupational settings
- referred to as victims versus perpetrators
- HIV makes contact with T-Helper lymphocyte (T4 or CD4 cells)
- functions of T4: to "orchestrate" the immune system in the event of attack from
harmful foreign invaders
- results in the decline of immune system
Clinical manifestations
- healthy person has 800-1200 CD4 cells/mm3
- CD4 count below 200 cells/mm3 produces vulnerability to opportunistic infections
and cancers that typify AIDS
- % of CD4 are also used to diagnose AIDS -- count below 14%
- may be no symptoms with initial infection
- individuals may experience a flu-like illness within a month or two after exposure to
the virus
- asymptomatic -- several months to more than 10 years
- as the immune system weakens, a variety of complications begin:
- large lymph nodes (for more than 3 months)
- frequent fevers and sweats
- lack of energy
- may take a long time for someone to feel better upon infections
immunology with HIV/AIDS
- develop opportunistic infections -- weak immuned system
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Document Summary

The sharing of needles or equipment for injecting drugs, tattooing, skin. Pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding (from an hiv-infected mother to her. Human immunodeficiency virus  attacks the immune system resulting in chronic, progressive illness. Leaves people vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers. Results in aids (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)  when the body can no longer fight infections. On average - it takes more than 10 years for the disease to progress hiv  aids. Replicates to produce viral dna from its rna genome. Hiv-2, primarily found in west africa - where virus may have been in circulation since the 1960s and 1970s. Must enter the bloodstream piercing or acupuncture infant) Hiv makes contact with t-helper lymphocyte (t4 or cd4 cells) Functions of t4: to orchestrate the immune system in the event of attack from harmful foreign invaders. Results in the decline of immune system. Healthy person has 800-1200 cd4 cells/ mm3.

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