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Lecture 11

lecture 11

3 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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L11
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Æ
attacks the immune system resulting in chronic,
progressive illness
- leaves people vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers
- results in AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
Æ
when the body can no
longer fight infections
- on average - it takes more than 10 years for the disease to progress HIV
Æ
AIDS
Etiology
- retrovirus
- contains an enzyme 'reverse transcriptase'
- replicates to produce viral DNA from its RNA genome
- HIV-1, found throughout the world
- 1981 in United States --
- HIV-2, primarily found in West Africa - where virus may have been in circulation
since the 1960s and 1970s
- both types have several subtypes
Modes of Transmission
- must enter the bloodstream
- unprotected sex
- occupational exposure in health care settings
- the sharing of needles or equipment for injecting drugs, tattooing, skin
piercing or acupuncture
- pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding (from an HIV-infected mother to her
infant)
- mainly depends on behavioural, occupational settings
- referred to as victims versus perpetrators
- HIV makes contact with T-Helper lymphocyte (T4 or CD4 cells)
- functions of T4: to "orchestrate" the immune system in the event of attack from
harmful foreign invaders
- results in the decline of immune system
Clinical manifestations
- healthy person has 800-1200 CD4 cells/mm3
- CD4 count below 200 cells/mm3 produces vulnerability to opportunistic infections
and cancers that typify AIDS
- % of CD4 are also used to diagnose AIDS -- count below 14%
- may be no symptoms with initial infection
- individuals may experience a flu-like illness within a month or two after exposure to
the virus
- asymptomatic -- several months to more than 10 years
- as the immune system weakens, a variety of complications begin:
- large lymph nodes (for more than 3 months)
- frequent fevers and sweats
- lack of energy
- may take a long time for someone to feel better upon infections
immunology with HIV/AIDS
- develop opportunistic infections -- weak immuned system
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Description
L1 1 - Hum an Imm uno deficiency Virus attacks the imm une system resulting in chronic, progressive illness - leaves people vulnerab le to opport unistic infections and cancers - results in AIDS (Acqu ired Imm unodeficiency Syndrome) whe n the body can no longer fight infections - on averag e - it takes more than 10 years for the disease to prog ress HIV AIDS Et iology - retrov irus - contains an enzyme reverse transcriptase - replicates to prod uce viral DNA from its RNA genom e - HIV-1, found throughout the world - 1981 in United States -- - HIV-2, primarily found in West Africa - where virus may have been in circulation since the 1960s and 1970s - both types have several subtypes Modes of Tra ns m issi on - mu st enter the bloodstream - unprotected sex - occupational exposure in health care settings - the sharing of needles or equipment for injecting drugs, tattooing, skin piercing or acupuncture - pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding (from an HIV-infected mo ther to her infant) - mainly depends on behavioural, occu pational settings - refe
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