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Lecture 9

HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Paroxysmal Attack, Chemoprophylaxis, Sub-Saharan Africa

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Lecture 9
November 3rd, 2011
Epidemiology: malaria killed hald of the people that ever lived on this planet
-it came from ancient times
-every ten to thirty seconds a person dies from malaria
-90% cases tend to be in Africa
-majority of malaria cases happens to children five or under
prevails in rural, tropical areas
-different types of parasites 1. plasmodium falciparum(more deadly): found in the
tropics 2. p.falciparum: causes
reporting of malaria is an issue in many countries
-differences between colours in map: sensitive to certain kinds of treatment
2006 map: dark blue- malaria transmission
-light blue: limited risks of malaria
-white: no endemic cases of malaria
-incidence and prevalence are important to know in areas
another measure of malaria: spleen rates (enlarges spleen at a particular time)
-children 2-9
global malaria cases: darkest colours indicate that they are very common or endemic
-gray: malaria free region
-a big cause of concern is the tropics
another map: dark blue: control measures must be put in place and are in place to
combat this disease
-light blue: pre elimination phase (relate this to David Klydeʼs study)
little or no control is in Africa or sub Saharan Africa
study: global malaria
-people look at this disease because it is so ancient and continues to affect a large
number of the population
-a lot of research has been put in place to seek rates
-many people expose to malaria are at a lower risk then previously thought
no longer endemic in canada but it remains an important disease in immigrants and
-cases vary from year to year
-generally in canada there are around 400 cases a year
-only 30-50% of cases are reported to public health agencies
-true number of imported cases may be a little bit higher in this case
Reported malaria in the U.S.: 8000 cases of malaria
-62% were from sub-saharan africa
Acute flu-like illness causes by plasmodium parasite
-170 species of this but only 4 are specific to humans
-plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum are popular types of malaria
-p vivax and ovale may come back after many years
malaria is caused by the bite of the female anopheles species mosquito
-must be infected with one of the four species of plasmodium genus parasite
-migrates to the salivary gland of the mosquito
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