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Lecture 3

PLagues and people lecture 3.docx


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Lecture
3

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2011-09-22
HLTA01 Plagues and People Lecture 3
Test: Disease Ecology, Bubonic plague, Plagues of Antiquity (lecture 2 and 3)
Introduction
Predominant diseases during hunter gatherer society : high transmission, parasites that can go
into the exterior environment, vectors that help transfer diseases , sexually transmitted diseases
Move to agriculture and the emergence of epidemic diseases
Emergence of cities-urban diseases
dfCrowding diseases emerged due to the high population, industrialization and pollution which
affected the external environment
Plagues of Antiquity
500 BC to 700 AD
Characterized by parasites with long transmission stages : lay eggs, eggs become larvae, the eggs
enter the human body and the cycle repeats itself. The parasites can get easily transmitted
through person to person contact
The Pharaoh’s Plague
1900 BC
Nile Valley of Egypt- Agriculture and irrigation- the nile was great for agriculture for growing and
selling crops
But it created an environment where the spread of disease was immenent
Snail fever or blood fluke disease/endemic hematuria/ shcistosomiasis
Parasites start as microscopic eggs (parasitic eggs) they become adult worms where they enter
the body and live in tiny blood vessels
Eventually it was not restricted to people who live around the Nile, - 1799-1801 is when
Europeans invaded Egypt and more understanding of the disease became more apparent
200 million people are affected by snail people , 1 million annual deaths worldwide
Its present in developing countries
Plagues of Athens
-affected the greek civilization
They based their civilization on making wine and olive oil
By the end of the dark ages 750 BC, 200 power city states emerged
Grew into powerful states , was a war that was long lasting (27 years) the Spartial forces were
much greater than the Athenian forces
It 430 BC an epidemic started and it moved into
It is believed that 140 Athenians died as a result of the plague
There isn’t a lot of information or evidence that reveals what this plague is
High rates including “pericles”
Route: Ethiopia, into Egypt and then Athens
Didn’t know where it existed but it had a large impact
The Roman Fever
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Existed during the Roman Empire
Roman established in 27 BC
Had a vast trade network that established , agriculture lead to lead to changes in the natural
environment
Deforestation
Mosquito vector , and increased the emergence of some of the mosquito vectors and lead to
the emergence of new parasites
Roman Fever- form of malaria
It was thought that roman fever resulted because people breathed in bad air
Mosquitoes that transmitted the parasites that caused malaria
Epidemics occurred every 5 to 8 years rise in the incidence of Roman fever
Genetics, natural environment, behaviour factors lead to the factors of incident rates
Life expectancy was reduced to twenty years
Cases of roman fever extended for 2000 years and onward
The Antonine Plague
Caused by the roman emperor who died of this plague
It dates by 166 AD and is brought to the roman empire by roman troops from Mesopotamia ,
Made its way to Europe
Symptoms: high fever, inflammation of the mouth and throat, and rash that appeared , diarrhea
, thirst
Identify of the plague not known-likely to be the first record of smallpox
Contagion was really high, the transmission was high (2000 people died everyday)
The Cyprian Plague
250 AD
Became a pandemic that lasted 16 years, and a lot of people fell sick with the same symptoms
Caused vomiting, diarrhea, fever, soar throat
It is the first sign of measles or smallpox, there isn’t a lot of reasons/causes for the plague
An infection that made its way to the other parts of the body
(three plagues was responsible for the falling of the Roman Empire)
Justinian Plague
First pandemic of the bubonic plague
Arrived in 541 in Constantine
Raged Eukrope, North Africa and the Middle East until 757
First experience of a pandemic believed that one million people died in a period of five years
By 600 AD mortality reached 1 million in western Europe- 50%
Its highly contagious and created a high mortality rate
Justinian plague, black death,
Red: Justinian plague- had an impact on Europe, Africa, Middle East
Green: Second pandemic 1346-1352- “Black Death”
1346-1352- noted as the Black Death , the second pandemic of the bubonic plague , the origins
were in the Caspian Sea region
20 million people died as a result
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