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18 Mar 2011
Lecture 9: Malaria
Historical Context:
Has been mentioned in the Nei Chang in China around 2700 BC
Mentioned by Hippocrates corpus in the 4 the century and
distinguished between the tertian and quartan malaria types. Also
believed that it was transmitted via water reservoir.
It caused the social decline of the Roman Empire and was referred to
as the roman fever. Thought that it was from poisonous air rising from
the marshes called roman campagna
Moved from the old world to the new world by the Europeans in the
15the century.
Reached the Mississippi valley in the 19th century
Laveran observed a back brown pigment in the blood and observed
exflagellation in 1880
In 1898 Koch argued that it was caused by a mosquito but was not very
successful in proving this
Ronal Ross thought it was caused by an intestinal infection
oHe met with Dr. Manson and Manson gave him the idea that
mosquitoes were linked with malaria
oRoss originally worked with the wrong mosquitoes but then was
given the correct anopheles mosquito
oHe saw the sexual cycle of the oocyst that developed 4-5 days
after infection
oAnd found stripes and ridges 7-8 days later
oHe discovered infectious stage in the mosquitos salivary glands
within a sparrow he experimented on
In 1898 Grassi proved and distinguished that the anopheles mosquito
was the vector and gave evidence of transmission
Killed more than half the people
300-500 million cases annually in Africa
It is endemic in over 100 countries
Prevalent in rural and tropical areas where elevation is less than 1000.
It is part of the plasmodium family
Plasmodium falciparum is the most severe and fatal case, usually
occurs in the tropics
P. Vivax is another form of malaria and is distributed widely
Together p. falciparum and p. vivax is the result of 95% of all malaria
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