Lecture 9 - Welfare state and health care.docx

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3 Apr 2012
Lecture 9- Welfare State and Health Care Week of March 13th, 2012
- Welfare State Regimes
- Impact of Welfare state on the health and social well-being of women
- Public policies for women
Overview: Impact of different welfare states on the quality of life (health?) of women and indicators of
women’s quality of life.
- Welfare State:
- “ the welfare state can be seen as a capitalist society in which the state has intervened in the
form of social policies, programs, standards, and regulations in order to mitigate class conflict
and to provide for, answer or accommodate certain social needs for which the capitalist mode
of production in itself has no solution or makes no provision. “ Source: Teeple, G (2000).
Globalization and the decline of social reform into the twenty-first century, Aurora, ON.
- Ranking of Welfare State by Political Economy:
- 1)Esping-Andersen’s Welfare State Regimes
- 2) Political economy perspective
- 3) Approach towards each dimension reflects the dominant ideology that is liberal, socio-
democratic, and conservative
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- Esping-Andersen’s Typology Welfare State I:
- Socio-democratic ( includes Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland)
- Liberal (includes UK, USA, Canada and Australia)
- Conservative (includes Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland, Netherlands and Portugal) welfare
- Out of these, Socio-democratic welfare states are the most generous, then come conservative
welfare states and the liberal welfare states are the least generous
- Esping- Andersen’s Typology of Welfare State II :
- 1. Liberal Welfare States
Means-tested assistance, have modest universal transfer and modest social-insurance
Limits welfare benefits since it is believed that generous benefits lead to a preference
for welfare dependency rather than gainful employment. This means:
People would rather have a low paying job than accept social assistance. People who
rely on social assistance have no other choice
People must be destitute or poor that is that they cannot have savings
Less keen on universal programs whether at subsistence level
Liberal view wants to discourage people from relying on the state
It says that economic growth will take care of people and they shall we fine
Emphasis is put on the market in liberal view
Therefore liberal welfare states are very rigid. Also, EXCEPT for USA, all other welfare
state countries have a public health care system
Residual Commodification means reliance on the market. Some social provision by
state which is more reliant on the market and relies on income to get goods and services
that are needed
Anglo-Saxon liberal regimes:
Lowest health care expenditures and the lowest coverage by public medical care
There is greater incidence of low wage earning, higher income inequalities and the
highest poverty rates
The greatest proportion of income is derived from capital investment rather than on
Lowest improvement rates in infant mortality rates from 1960 to 1996:
- invest on stocks and earn income which is actually unearned income
- when there is low state provision, it affects the poor and modest population
- liberal welfare states scored the lowest on health care and life expectancy
- Canada’s life expectancy is high from NORDIC countries (Scandinavian countries such
as Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland , Denmark etc)
- Seeing impact on infant mortality rate and our rate is just above OECD level. It is
approx. 6 or 7% which is HIGH
Socio-democratic regimes come first in generosity, them come conservative regimes
and liberal regimes come at last
In summary, lowest health care expenditures, relies on market, commodities, has lowest
paying jobs, income is accumulated through investments and has lower life expectancies
- 2. Social Democratic Welfare States/Regimes
Have higher levels of union density
Higher levels of social security and public employment expenditures, > public health
care expenditures, and > extensive health care coverage
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