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Chapter notes

Health Studies
Course Code
Anna Walsh

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Chapter 5 Aging of the Skin and Musculoskeletal system
The musculoskeletal (MSK) and the skin provide the most obvious signs of aging.
SKIN – note: helps in maintain homeostasis.
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
Melanoctyes make melanin which helps protect the skin from damage like sun burn.
Langerhan cells make up an important part of the immune system.
Age-Related Changes
Changes in the hair follicles result in the graying and loss of hair. Wringles are due to the decrease
in subcutaneous fat.
The skin becomes more likely to bruise and tear and less likely to heal in older age.
Disease-Related Processes
Xerosis: dry, itchy, red, scaly skin. Risk factors: excessive sun expos ure. You need to keep it
hydrated so in the winter, when you are inside and warm and dr y all the time, it is not good for
Soborr heic Keratosses: benign old-age spots that are found in older people. They appear more
frequently with age. Risk fa ctor: sun exposure. They are non-malignant.
Skin Cancer – 3 types:
oBasal-cell carcinoma: small fleshy bump usually on the head or neck. Greatest risk:
exposure to the sun.
oSquamos-cell carcinoma: found on the face or back of hand. Red, scaly and hard patch.
Risk factor: exposure to the sun.
Malginant Melanoma: most dangerous type of skin cancer. Can be fatal if not treated. Risk
factors: light skin, light hair colour, many sun burns, family history. Melanocytes. Incidence rate
of malignant melanoma has doubled in the past 20 years.
Pressure Ulcers: occur in people who spend long period of time immobile (ex. Wheel chair).
Occurs because an area of the skin has been damaged or there is a breakdown of tissue.
Promoting Optimal Aging
The skin is one of the first systems to be affected by poor nutritional intake
The skin suffers when a person has a chronic illness because of the effect the illness has on the
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
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