•78yrs and 2 months for life expectancy in the United States. About 2.4million
people died in 2009 which is about 36000 fewer than in 2008. Infant mortality
rates are also lower which has dropped 3% since 2008.
•Hospitals are now introducing in treating older adults. In the United States there
are special emergency departments. They have recognized that older people have
specific needs, understanding the specific symptoms that are more likely to occur
in an older person. In the United States about 17 mill seniors will visit the
hospital. St. Jose regional medical centre take care of the elderly when it comes to
better precautions taken compared to other hospitals, geriatric, different rooms,
staffed are trained to be gentle, to offer compassion and to understand people are
suffering and need specialized care.
•Canada has 2.3 doctors for every 3000 people, doctor shortage. 30% of Canada’s
physician workforce is 55 or older. Capable students who have hoped to become
doctors have been unable as a result to access medical training in Canada, and are
either forced to seek out their training outside of Canada or change their career
•In Canada, we are dealing with a large elderly population and a lack in taking care
of the elderly people. We don’t have role models to teach younger people in how
to treat elderly people.
•Looking after the elderly is seen as a burden and can cause stress.
-stress is never easy to contend with, stress is part of our normal existence but it is the
way that we react to it that will make it or break it for us
Stress as a Physiological State
•Cannon (1915) was the first physiologist to systematically describe the
physiological effects of stress.
•Cannon believed that the fight/flight reaction is a general response to any stressor,
physical or social. He said if the individual is exposed to the flight or flight
reaction for a long period of time will be harmed and called it voodoo death.
•Selye expanded on Cannon’s conceptions in two ways. – Hans Selye: stress is a
major pathway through which psychosocial factors affect physiology and the
aging process. Through the neuroendocrine system, psychosocial stress can have
adverse effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems.
•Stress can also have a positive effect on people. Can motivate us to do things that
we otherwise will not do, balance is important.
•If there is too much cortisol because of stress can cause harmful effects, damages
receptors in the hippocampus. Certain illnesses and certain age related changes
can become worse because our exposure to physical stressors.