HLTC22H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Javabeans, Cardiovascular Disease, Epigenome
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HLTB01H3S: Health, Aging and the Life Cycle
Department of Health Studies
University of Toronto at Scarborough
Instructor: Anna Walsh.
Term: Winter 2011 Mondays 3 p.m.-5 p.m.
Lecture Room: AA 112
Phone: 416-287- 5642.
Teaching Assistants: TBA
Office: BV 506.
Office Hours: Mondays: 2 p.m.-3 p.m.
March 21, 2011
Stress and Social Support: Intranet Notes.
A&G: Ch 10- Stress, Coping, and Health.
A&G: Ch 11- Social Support, Health, and Aging.
Stress, Coping, and Health
•Stress is a major pathway through which psychosocial factors affect physiology
and the aging process.
•If you want to eat food to protect you against diseases, new research out of the
university of Alabama has revealed that eating vegetables such as broccoli,
cabbage, brusel sprouts may actually prevent cancer and other cardiovascular
disease—food that we eat is very imp. And serves as a function as a epigenetic
diet (diet that can ward off illnesses by suppressing changes in how genes express
themselves over time)—environmental factors such as the food we eat are known
to effect the epigenome (cellular material outside the genome that literally dictates
how genes express themselves)—according to this study, the results have revealed
that certain foods can prevent certain cancers and diseases.
•Type of diet that should be eaten: cauliflower, JavaBeans, grapes, green tea,
turmeric – three cups of green tea everyday provides enough polifenels that
suppresses the genes that cause breast cancer.
•Experimental treatment using gene therapy in relation to advanced Parkinson’s
disease. GAD: controls a neurotransmitter called GABA (linked to calming over
reactive neurons) Parkinson’s patients do not produce GAD which means that the
GABA isn’t working properly which means that their neurons are over working
(tremor and stiffness).—side effects: mild headache
•78yrs and 2 months for life expectancy in the United States. About 2.4million
people died in 2009 which is about 36000 fewer than in 2008. Infant mortality
rates are also lower which has dropped 3% since 2008.
•Hospitals are now introducing in treating older adults. In the United States there
are special emergency departments. They have recognized that older people have
specific needs, understanding the specific symptoms that are more likely to occur
in an older person. In the United States about 17 mill seniors will visit the
hospital. St. Jose regional medical centre take care of the elderly when it comes to
better precautions taken compared to other hospitals, geriatric, different rooms,
staffed are trained to be gentle, to offer compassion and to understand people are
suffering and need specialized care.
•Canada has 2.3 doctors for every 3000 people, doctor shortage. 30% of Canada’s
physician workforce is 55 or older. Capable students who have hoped to become
doctors have been unable as a result to access medical training in Canada, and are
either forced to seek out their training outside of Canada or change their career
•In Canada, we are dealing with a large elderly population and a lack in taking care
of the elderly people. We don’t have role models to teach younger people in how
to treat elderly people.
•Looking after the elderly is seen as a burden and can cause stress.
-stress is never easy to contend with, stress is part of our normal existence but it is the
way that we react to it that will make it or break it for us
Stress as a Physiological State
•Cannon (1915) was the first physiologist to systematically describe the
physiological effects of stress.
•Cannon believed that the fight/flight reaction is a general response to any stressor,
physical or social. He said if the individual is exposed to the flight or flight
reaction for a long period of time will be harmed and called it voodoo death.
•Selye expanded on Cannon’s conceptions in two ways. – Hans Selye: stress is a
major pathway through which psychosocial factors affect physiology and the
aging process. Through the neuroendocrine system, psychosocial stress can have
adverse effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems.
•Stress can also have a positive effect on people. Can motivate us to do things that
we otherwise will not do, balance is important.
•If there is too much cortisol because of stress can cause harmful effects, damages
receptors in the hippocampus. Certain illnesses and certain age related changes
can become worse because our exposure to physical stressors.
•Modern conceptions of the stress response differ in several important ways. Both
Cannon and Seyle argued that there are general responses to stress, but it is now
widely recognized that there are individual differences in stress reactions.
Positive Physiological Changes
•Researches have been so focused on the negative consequences of stress that
possible positive outcomes tend to be overlooked.
Physiological Stress and Aging
•In humans, the findings on age-related changes in the stress response are quite
variable and somewhat contradictory.
•Traumatic stress is defined by the DSM-IV-TR as direct personal experience of an
event that involves serious threat to the life or physical integrity of self or
significant others, or learning about such an experience of a family member or
•Traumatic events can be loosely grouped into three general categories. Natural or
technological disasters including earthquakes, tornadoes, volcanoes, floods, and
•The effects of trauma can last a lifetime.
•Stress has an effect on the genetic levels. Older people have a harder time coping
with stress because it is harder for them to maintain homeostasis.
•Stress invokes feelings of extreme terror—20-30% who experience extreme
trauma will go on to develop post traumatic stress disorder (difficulty sleeping,
eating, coping with life, severe anxiety which will affect their ability to manage
Stressful Life Events
•There is some overlap between life events and individual trauma.
Chronic Role Strain
•Sociologists developed the construct of chronic role strain, which refers to
enduring problems linked to social roles such as marriage, work, parenting,
finances, and health.
A&g: ch 11- social support, health, and aging. Stress, coping, and health: stress is a major pathway through which psychosocial factors affect physiology and the aging process. Gad: controls a neurotransmitter called gaba (linked to calming over reactive neurons) parkinson"s patients do not produce gad which means that the. Gaba isn"t working properly which means that their neurons are over working (tremor and stiffness). side effects: mild headache www. notesolution. com. 78yrs and 2 months for life expectancy in the united states. About 2. 4million people died in 2009 which is about 36000 fewer than in 2008. Infant mortality rates are also lower which has dropped 3% since 2008: hospitals are now introducing in treating older adults. In the united states there are special emergency departments. They have recognized that older people have specific needs, understanding the specific symptoms that are more likely to occur in an older person. In the united states about 17 mill seniors will visit the hospital.