Study of mankind from beginning to present day. Gender, beauty, illness, death } can be defined culturally and not fixed. Girls not allowed in schools so elderly served as teachers to the girls. Living, changes experienced during life course --> aging. Relative time: events can be ordered, but not have to be precise. Absolute time: measure and impose culture on something regular (ex. Informal knowledge and relative age }don"t know how old. No watches, or use moon or sun for time. Informal knowledge & absolute age } not documented officially. Know what age and have expectations of what to do at certain age (ex. Formal knowledge & relative age} used to be age-ambiguous and then changed (ex. Old age not considered society problem (thought individual than society) Aging: involves interactions among biological, environmental, and cultural domains. 2 main: genetic that make us grow old environmental (inevitable, accumulated wear and tear, more injuries) Due to gradual accumulation of non-intentional genetic damage.