HLTC23H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: List Of Black Mirror Episodes, Cardiovascular Disease, Lean Body Mass

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Published on 28 Jan 2013
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Variations in Human Growth and Development (Height and Physiological Growth)
Humans - 99.9 % identical DNA sequence level difference amongst them
Chimps: 2 3x difference Orangutans: 8 10x
Genotype:
o DNA sequence level comparison
o Adenine-cytosine-guanine-thymine pairs and their order and such
Phenotype:
o Physical manifestation of genotype
o Appearance = expression of genes, but also of environment
o In humans, a lot of phenotypic difference based on very little genotypic difference
Therefore, environment has a pretty big effect
Ex. place with less sunlight = lighter skin to absorb more nutrients from sun
Rules:
o Warmer climates = thinner, taller proportions because better adapted to sweat (more
surface area) and less fat to keep you hot
o Colder climates = stockier, shorter because body fat to keep warm
Comparative Growth:
o Skeletal measures (height, proportions)
Easiest to see
Graph can be stretched horizontally/vertically = the plasticity of height
Bogin: easy to attribute to genetics, but clearly more factors affect it than that
total height sitting height = leg length grow fastest during childhood
better childhood = longer legs shorter sitting height
weight/height poor nutritional status = reduced height, also reduced weight for
height (changing today for obesity, will be talked about more in depth later
lecture)
late-maturing kids = reduced peak height velocity vs. early-maturing kids
children w/ slow growth prior to puberty will have longer-lasting growth spurt
during adolescence than children with greater prepubertal % of adult height
areas of endemic chronic undernutrition, disease, child labour: height of every
age is reduced compared with less stressed pops; but total span of growth period
is prolonged (i.e. up to 25/26 vs. at 18/21)
o Dental development (eruption)
Can count bands of enamel in tooth to infer ages of children (growth rings)
A. American kids have advanced development of teeth vs. E. American kids
Could be mostly genetic, but could also be some kind of populational
difference
o Body composition (fat, muscle)
Subcutaneous fat layer = how much the body stores
Upper arm length
Triceps skin fole (TSF)
o Extremity fat
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