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Chapter 1: Epidemiology by Bonita et al.,

4 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
R Song

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Origins Epidemiology originates from Hippocrates observation 2000 years ago that env factors influence the occurrence of disease Findings of John Snow about choleraSnows epidemiological studies were one aspect of wideeanging series of investigations that examined related physical chemical biological sociological and political processesComparing rates of disease in subgroups of human popbecame common practiceApproach applied to control communicable diseasesAlso applied to noncommunicable diseases such as heart disease and cancerRecent Developments in Epidemiology Epidemiologynew discipline that uses quantitative methods to study diseases in human populations to inform prevention and control effortsRichard Doll and Andrew Hillrelationship bet Lung cancer and tobacco useprogressive dec in death rates among non smoker over decadesAct upon the social determinants of health and disease most of which lie outside the health sectorDefinition Scope and Uses of EpidemiologyEpidemiologyLaststudy of distribution and determinants of healthrelated states or events in specified pop And the applications of this study to prevention and control of health problemsConcerned also with positive health states and improving health not only with diseases and disabilitiesScopeA focus of an epidemiological study is the pop Defined in geographical or other terms Eg a specific group of workers A common pop Used in epidemiology is one slelcted from specific area or country at specific timeSubgroups with respectto sex age group or ethnicitySee page 4 chart for additional infoEpidemiology and Public HealthPublic healthcollective actions to improve pop HealthEpidemiologyone of the tools for improving public health is used in several ways such as concerned in causes of diseasesEpidemiologybasic medical science with the goal of improving health of the pop And the health of disadvantagedCausation of diseaseAlthough some diseases are caused by genetic factors most result from an interaction bet Genetic and environmental factorsEnvironmentinclude biological chemical physical psychological economic and cultural factors that can affect health
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