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Lecture 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Michelle Silver

Foundation in health studies- HLTB03 Lecture 6-Womens health Basal Metabolic Rate: BMR) Women’s BMR: 655 + (4.35*weight in Lbs.) + 4.7 * height in inches) – (4.7 *age in years) Men’s BMR: 66+ (6.23 *weight) + (127 *height) – (6.8 *age) If you exercise during the day, it changes your BMR, so you need to calculate how many Kcals you need to take in, so as to balance the current weight. Light exercise: (exercise 1-3/week): BMR * 1.375 Moderate: (3-5/week): BMR *1.55 Very active: (6-7/week): BMR*1.725 Average: women say 7000 words/ day, men: 2000 on average. Womens heart: beat faster than men’s. Women: burn fat slowly than men, by a rate of about 50 calories a day. Demographics: Smoking: Worldwide: smoking rater among men tends to be 10 times higher than women. BUT women generally have less success in quitting the habit; have more relapses than men, and nicotine replacement therapy may be less effective among women. HIV: of all adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, 61% are women In Caribbean, proportion of women living with virus is 43%. Lower number in America, Asia and Eastern Europe. BEFORE: HIV was associated with men, now there are continents that have more women affected than men. Abuse: between 15% and 71% of women around the world have suffered physical or sexual violence committed by an intimate male partner (gender) at some point in their lives. Cultural shift, now not acceptable. As many as 1 in 5 women reports being sexually abused before the age of 15. (29%) Environmental exposure: most countries women tend to be in charge of cooking. • When they cook over open fires or traditional stoves, they breathe in a mix of hundreds of pollutants on a daily basis. • During pregnancy, exposure of the developing embryo to such harmful pollutants may cause low birth weight or even stillbirth. • Correlation: with Life expectancy and Highly developed countries with higher education standards. • Rich vs. Poor: Difference of at least 20 years in terms of average life expectance of women from poor and rich communities/ countries. Health care: women tend not to have equal general health care. – Inability to travel, or cultural. Women have significantly higher risk of becoming visually impaired than men. Body image: thin and beautiful. Some suggest that by this presentation, we can increase the money of diet products. Came about after WW2, came into a phase of consumer culture. The medicalization of women’s bodies: eating disorders. Notion that there is a process whereby a condition becomes defined by society as an illness that should be treated by medical procedures. Before, many of women’s bodily functions and problems, were seen as problems. Women’s magazines have 10.5% of information on weight loss. ¾ TV characters tend to be underweight, and also disproportionally white. Obesity: Risk factors: • Physical Inactivity • Diet • Socioeconomic factors • Heredity Consequences: • Type 2 Diabetes • Psychological Issues • High Blood Pressure • Osteoarthritis • Some cancers and Gallbladder disease • Limited Life Expectancy • Limited Quality of Life BMI= WEIGHT(KG)/HEIGHT (METRES) 2 (Don’t need age) Obesity rates: higher in US than in Canada. Pregnancy: Maternal mortality Ratios in Canada, 1925- 1995: decreased dramatically. (Dying from giving birth) Relationship between having children and dying. Automy during pregnancy: Shifts in body during baby growth. Average age of mother at childbirth: same as today in 1944 (WW2) drop in age at 1952-1975), then increase till 2005. On average women age are younger at childbirth, depending on province. Mother’s age and risk: As the women increase in age, the risk that she has a child with some problem, e.g. downs syndrome, increases. Benefits of breast-feeding: good for mother too. BABY: protection to GI tract of baby, decrease in SIDS. Benefits to women: Related to higher IQ’s. Comforting that occurs. Many of the studies have limitations. Also educated women who breast feed are
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