Foundation in health studies- HLTB03
Child health: overall child death rates have been steadily declining. But places
like in Sub-Saharan Africa it is still very high.
43% of deaths of children under five years old occurred in Africa.
Mostly from: AIDS/HIV, malaria, respiratory and bacterial infections, diarrheal and
MAIN: Pneumonia. Acute respiratory disease and childhood diarrhea.
Infant birth weight; Canada: lower than most countries. But
• Due to international differences: the cut off points/ standardized criteria
are different from country to country. (LIMITATIONs of cultural differences)
• Children born, even though not still born
• A lot of multiple births: many women are waiting till later to have
children. Risk factor for low birth weight.
Childhood obesity in Canada: rates have tripled in the last 25 years. Approx.
26% of Canadian children ages 2-17 years old are currently overweight or obese.
1/3 of normal weight 20 year olds, will move into the overweight category; the
other 1/3 will become obese. (Both within 8 years)
• High sugar and fat drinks and foods
• Not physically active each day (playing video games vs. going out and
• Eat to deal with stress or problems
• Lack of resources or family background that favors healthy eating habits
• Genetic disease or hormone disorder such as Prader-Willi syndrome or
• 5 fruits and vegetables per day
• 2 hours of screen time or less per day
• 1 hour of physical activity per day
• 0 sugar sweetened beverage per day
• 6 weeks: heart
• 9 weeks: spine formed
• 10 weeks: almost all organs completely formed
• 15 weeks: sex of child determined: fetus can hear, fingers can grasp
• 20 weeks: placental fully formed
• 28 weeks: eyes completely formed
• 30 weeks: lungs are only major organ left to develop complete (in boys
there is a tendency for lungs to develop slower- problem for premature babies)
• 42 weeks: baby overdue
• Bones in skull not hardening as much as other bones: and synapses and neurons are developing. Also mothers hormones and anti-bodies are being
Theory in child development: Psychoanalytic, Learning, Piagets
cognitive-development and Ethological theory.
Psychoanalytic theory: Oldest and most controversial development theory.
Inner forces outside the awareness. Freudian Slip: subconsciously calling a girl by
your mother’s name.
• The conscious mind: memory, things we are aware of.
• The unconscious mind: feelings and thoughts outside of the
consciousness. Continues to influence our behavior, even if we are unaware.
o Id: consistently there. Unconscious
o Ego: dealing with reality. Operates on the REALITY PRINCIPLE: aims to
satisfy the Ids desires in a socially acceptable way
o Super ego: moral rules. Begins at age 5.
Eric EriksonPsychosocial theory: emphasized family, cultural on the
development of the personality throughout the lifespan.
1. Oral Sensory Birth to Trust vs. Mistrust Feeding
2. Muscular- Anal18 months to Autonomy vs. Toilet
3years Shame/Doubt training
3. Locomotor 3 to 6 years Initiative vs. Independence
4. Latency 6 to 12 years Industry vs. Inferiority School
5. Adolescence 12 to 18 years Identity vs. Peer relationships
6. Young 19 to 40 years Intimacy vs. Love relationships
7. Middle 40 to 65 years Generativity vs. Parenting
8. Maturity 65 to death Ego Integrity vs. Despair Reflection on and acceptance of
Critique of Psychoanalytic theory: • Relies on individual case studies limiting generalizability
• Overly negative view of development & overemphasis on the importance
of early sexuality in personality development
• Emphasis on the importance of early experience in personality
development: Freud didn’t really include on that.
• Greatly expanded our perspective on child development
• John Watson (1878-1958)
• Behaviorism - focus on behavior: stimulus response. Associated with
• Albert and the rat: Albert was not scared of the rat. But then every
time Albert touched the rat, he made a loud noise; then Albert feared rats and
other animals as well- Through conditioning.
• The purpose of psychology is not to speculate about the existence of
unconscious states but to uncover principles th