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Lecture

2. Global Health and Nutrition.pptx

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Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTA02H3
Professor
Dan Silver
Semester
Fall

Description
Global Health and Nutrition HLTB03 Lecture 2 M. Silver Outline Global Health Communicable Diseases  an infectious disease transmissible (as from person to person) by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual's discharges or by indirect means (as by a vector)—compare • airborne, blood, bodily fluids Non-communicable Diseases  A non-communicable disease, or NCD, is a disease which is not contagious. Risk factors such as a person's lifestyle, genetics, or environment are known to increase the likelihood of certain non-communicable diseases Nutritional Needs Throughout the Life course Communicable Diseases  an infectious disease transmissible (as from person to person) by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual's discharges or by indirect means (as by a vector)—compare  Leading cause of diseases around the world  Transmitted through many different properties such  airborne, blood, bodily fluids  Examples HIV/AIDS  Polio Influenza  Tuberculosis Malaria HIV/AIDS Human immune deficiency virus Effects the immune system, weakening it  Leads to greater chance of infections to occur AIDS: advanced stages of the HIV Incubation period of developing HIV intoAIDS has increased over the years Medical treatment prevents and slows down the process of transforming Transmitted through bodily fluid Can be concealed Does not always show up in blood tests 33 million people world wide are infected by HIV Highest rates in Africa Influenza Contagious respiratory illness  Avian Flu  Swine Flu  Flu Pandemics Mainly effects the very young and very old Caused by a viral infection virus Prevention: vaccination / hygienic percussion Zoonotic disease Adisease specifically transferred from animal to human Ex.Avian flue (Bird flue) Contact with domesticated animal population Can be transferred from contaminated surfaces Pandemic: globalized diseases outbreak Swine flu Disease that originate from pigs Normally do not infect the human population Pandemic  Determined by the spread of disease not by the ability to cause mortality (death)  Global disease outbreak  Considered to be a new type of influenza considered to be little or no immunity vaccination spread extremely fast with in close contact Malaria  Cause by the bite of a female mosquito  350 – 500 million people are infected and ill world wide  Kills over 1 million annually 9/10 deaths in in sub-Sahara Africa Usually effect kids under the age of 5 years old  Approximately 40% of the world’s population is at risk  Symptoms: Fever, headache, flu, abdominal pain, light headed Can cause coma  Treatment Bed nets to prevent mosquitos to get in Anti medical drugs 75% of infected population are not able to pay for treatment 3.2 million dollars spent on budget to cure malaria Polio Infectious disease: Invades the Neurosystem Causes life long crippling Tends to infect children under 5 Little concern in developed countries No cure There are 2 Vaccines but very costly Tuberculosis  Bacteria is spread through air from person to person  Impacts the bones creating big air sacs  Causing the bones to become brittle  Approximately 1/3 of the world’s population may be infected with TB  Can be lateen (does not always have physical features present)  Highest rates are in Africa (22 main land countries)  Reflects and correlates with the HIV/AIDS infected population  Treatment  Drugs which are used as antibiotics  Drug resistance has still not been developed Non-communicable Diseases  Due to chronic  Not caused by an acute infection  Cause long-term harm  The number one cause of death and disability in the world  Create a need for long-term (or even life-long) treatment  Can be prevented most of the time  Prevention methods: exercise / reduced alcoholic levels  Examples:  cancers, chronic respiratory, diseases  cardiovascular diseases, diabetes Tobacco Smoke  More deaths are caused each year by tobacco use than by all deaths from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and murders combined.  Impacts every aspect of the human body negatively  Everyday there are about 400 under 18 years of age smokers  Approximately $10 billion spent in anti-smoking ads.  Smoking increases risks of … Coronary lung cancer (2x) Lung cancer (2x) Lung Cancer for women (13x) www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/health_effects/heart_disease/flash/index.htm Global Health & Nutrition Inequalities in foo
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