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HLT B03 Lec 02

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Health Studies
Dan Silver

Meerah Vijeyakumaran HLT B03 Lec-02 Global Health and Nutrition  Communicable Disease  Non Communicable Disease (smoking)  Nutritional needs throughout the life course  Spread from one person to another through animals- can be transmitted air bourn, through bodily fluids  Infectious and contagious (HIV/AID) HIV/AIDS  Human immunodeficiency virus  Impairs the immune system, as system weakens it makes the body more susceptible for disease.  Antiviral drug help someone live with HIV before it develops to aids  Prevalence: 33 million people are affected with AIDs worldwide.  Transmission: unprotected close contact with bodily fluids (mainly blood)  Window period where HIV shows up in blood 3-12 weeks, HIV can be transmitted at any period, even when it’s in your system and you have not been diagnosed. INFLUENZA  It is a contagious respiratory illness  Asian flue  Swine flu  Flu pandemic  Caused by the influenza virus: people who have HIV or AID are highly susceptible  Must get vaccinated to prevent getting it  Zoanotic infections: transmitted from animals to humans  Avian Flu: transmitted from birds to human contact with domesticated birds and chickens  Can come from direct contact or contaminated surfaces  Swine Flu: respiratory disease, from pigs to humans PANDEMIC  Global disease outbreak  Occurs when a new influenza virus emerges  Can be spread from person to person worldwide, as people move from country to country the disease gets passed on. Meerah Vijeyakumaran  Determined by the spread (widespread) not based on how many people die due to the disease. MALARIA  Kills over 1 million annually  9/10 deaths in sub/ Sahara Africa (children below 5)  Aproximately 40% of the worlds population is at risk  Symptoms: flu like symptoms, when not treated will result in coma, convulsion, & death  Prevention: bed nets are a high affective way of reducing infection, anti-malarial drugs POLIO  Virus  Tends to affect children under 5, there is no cure  However there is a vaccine (2)  Generally very serious  Invades the nervous system: can cause life long crippling  Vaccines are costly and not provided for TUBERCULOSIS  Bacteria  Approximately 1/3 of the worlds population may be infected with TB  High rates in Africa  Can be spread through air or from person to person contact  Can be latent: not showing symptoms till later on  Treatment / Prevention: bacteria can be treated with antibiotics, but drug resistance may develop when using antibiotics Non-communicable Diseases  Are caused by an acute infection, can cause long term harm  Create the need for a long term (or even life-long) treatment  Can be prevented through exercising, not abusing alcohol, not smoking, unhealthy diet etc.  The number one cause of death and disability in the world  Example: cardiovascular disease, cancers, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes  Effect developing and developed countries  Each day 1000 people under 18 smoke on a daily basis, 70% of people that smoke want to quit  Smoking increases coronary heart disease, known to cause cancer  Cigarettes: contain over 4000 carcinogens Meerah Vijeyakumaran SMOKING  Causes low fertility, premature kids GLOBAL HEALTH & NUTRITION  In equalities in food distribution: global hunger 6 major dificiencies impact health through their life cycle  Water  Protein  Iron  Vitamin A  Iodine  Folic Acid  Pregnant women & children are the hardest hit NUTRITIONAL NEEDS  Adequate caloric intake to meet out daily needs  1000-2500 calories: women  2500-3500 calories: men WATER  In hot climates, lack of water can cause death in a few hours  9 million worldwide have water bourne diseases  India- has a lot of contam
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