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Lecture 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Dan Silver

Child And Adolescent Health and Environment lecture Stuff Family Law Act  31. (1): Every parent has an obligation to provide support for his or her unmarried child who is a minor or is enrolled in a full time program of education, to the extent that the parent is capable of doing so.  31. (2) The obligation under subsection (1) does not extend to a child who is sixteen years of age or older and has withdrawn from parental control. Obligation of child to support parent  32. Every child who is not a minor has an obligation to provide support, in accordance with need, for his or her parent who has cared for or provided support for the child, to the extent that the child is capable of doing so. Income and Poverty  Inequalities of wealth and income produce unequal life chances. Poverty translates into homelessness, ill health, short life expectancy, malnutrition, amid hunger.  A significant number of Canadians live in poverty. The number of poor people was nearly 5 million in 2003 and the poverty rate was nearly 16 percent.  These income disparities produce an inequality of opportunities and life chances and create negative outcomes for individuals in low-income and poor families. Income and Health  Those with high incomes, for instance, live longer, healthier and more disability-free lives on average than those who are poor. Similar patterns of disease, illness, and mortality prevail for children. Life Expectancy  Number of years a person would be expected to live based on mortality statistics for a given observation/cohort period. Life expectancy is a measure of longevity and not quality of life. It is a widely used indicator of the health status of the population.  Life expectancy is related to access to health care, lifestyles, genetics, nutrition, and the benefits of a healthy environment. o According to international studies, life expectancy is also related to national wealth, the quality of the health care system and individual socio-economic status. Income  Many Canadians live on incomes that are inadequate for their daily needs. Statistics Canada’s data for after-tax low income cut offs (LICO), which is the income level (after tax and income transfers from governments) at which a family has to use substantially more of its income than the average Canadian family for food, shelter, and clothing has shown that many Canadians are experiencing difficulties.  In 2001, a family that had to spend more than 64.0 per cent of after-tax income on these items was considered to be below the LICO, and thereby living in stressful conditions. Education  According to the 2001 Census, 61.0 per cent of all Canadians aged 25 - 34 attained education beyond high school, 28.0 per cent had a University education, and 21.0 per cent had acquired a college diploma. This reflects an increase over a decade earlier, when only 49.0 per cent of individuals in that age group had any education past high school, with 18 per cent having acquired a University education and 17 per cent having acquired a college diploma.  In 2001, women represented 59.0 per cent of college graduates aged 25 and older, and exactly half of all University graduates. This reflects an increase of 47.0 per cent in female university graduates from a decade earlier. Infant Mortality  Number of deaths of children under one year of age, expressed per 1,000 live births. The infant mortality rate is one of the most widely used measures of health in society. It is affected by a number of factors in the population, including income, maternal education and health services.  Infant mortality is divided into: o Neonatal mortality: death in the first month of life o Post-neonatal mortality: death between one month and one year of age  The leading causes of infant mortality in Canada are: o Preterm birth o Birth defects, and o Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Infant Mortality Rate  The Canadian infant mortality rate has decreased from 6.8 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 5.3 per 1,000 in 2000.  This decline in Canada's infant mortality rate is a continuation of a trend in the past decades. Since the 1960s, interprovincial-territorial differences in infant mortality and differences among socio-economic groups have decreased. These trends are likely attributable to several factors, including universal access to health services and increased maternal education levels. Healthy lifestyles  Refers to individual ways of living that include personal health practices and choices that have been shown to be clearly associated with reducing the risk of health problems. Some important elements of a healthy lifestyle are physical activity and body weight.  The type of personal health practices that individuals pursue affect how healthy they are as individuals and subsequently, as a society. Factors such as smoking, obesity and inactivity have been linked to a number of health problems. o A lack of physical activity has been recognized as a risk factor for coronary heart disease, and the World Health Organization has identified the prevalence of overweight and obese individuals as a major neglected public health issue. Consider as well associated health care costs. Anabolic steroid Use  Anabolic steroid use can lead to a number of dangerous side effects that include: o Lowered levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Low HDL), which benefits the heart; o Stimulation of prostate tumours; clotting disorders, and liver problems. o Psychologically, anabolic steroids can cause a person to be more aggressive. Cosmetic changes may include baldness, increased body hair, acne, and breast growth in men.  Anabolic steroids which are synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring male hormone, testosterone, have been developed recently. Substances that mimic the male sex hormones are known as androgens.  Anabolic steroids and androgens are banned in the Olympics, professional football, and college athletics. Lecture Notes  Current events: Doctor Nepke. Joined Canadians food in 1963, medical officer responsible for medical review of drug submissions from pharmaceutical. o Has been advocate in trying to review results to ensure our safety. On health Canada you can see info about drug reactions and programs that are being done for our safety and well being. He believes Drug reactions and food reactions to vaccines are important for us to monitor. o Threat of radiation right now in Japan is a huge issue for us. We are a plane ride away from Japan. We should all be helping. Radiation is being emitted from troubled reactors in Japan. Locations include northern parts.  Causing havoc because of danger related to radiation in short term. Long term can cause cancer.  Chernobyl in Ukraine and Russia.  Radiation poisoning is dangerous to those closer to nuclear plants. Most severe form is fatal. o People who have been exposed with severe form can die within weeks. o Many can survive milder forms of radiation sickness.  Boils down to kind of radiation and how long exposure lasted; q
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