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Lecture 8

HLTB 11 Lecture 8: Nutrition 8

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Health Studies
Thomas M S Wolever

Chapter 8: Water Soluble Vitamins  Fat-Soluble Vitamines o Vitamin A, D, E,K  Water Soluble o Vitamin B: Folate, Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), biotin, pantothenic acid, B6, B12 o Vitamin C  Smokers have higher vitamin C  Enrichment: replace nutrient lost during processing  Fortification: increase the amount of a nutrient in the food supply  Absorption of vitamin o In the mouth: chewing releases some vitamins o In stomach: more releasing of vitamin, some NIACIN is absorbed here o In gallbladder: Release bile, which emulsified fat and help absorb fat soluble vitamin o Pancreas: secretes more enzymes help digest o Small intestine: fat soluble incorporated into micelles and then absorbed by simple diffusion. They are then packaged in chylomicron which enter lymph then blood  water soluble vitamins absorbed directly to blood in small intestine o Large intestine: bacteria synthesize small amount of vitamin which are absorb  Bioavailability: how much nutrient can be absorbed and used in the body.  Storage o Water soluble  No storage, excreted in urine, depletes faster than fat soluble (Exception B12 in blood for several years) o Fat-soluble:  Stored in liber and adipose tissue, Not excreted in urine, excess amount more toxic than water soluble, take longer to develop a deficiency  Function of vitamins: o Coenzymes:  Vitamin combines with chemical groups to form functional coenzyme (ACTIVE VITAMINES).  The functional coenzyme combines with incomplete enzyme to form active enzyme.  The active enzyme bind to one or more molecule and accelerates the chemical reaction to form one more new molecule  The new molecule are released and the enzyme and coenzyme (vitamin) can be reused or separated o Vitamin B helps energy metabolism: Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Biotin o Single carbon metabolism: transfer of methyl group, Vitamin B6 folate and B12 o Antioxidant: protection from oxidative damage or oxidative stress, Vitamin C and Vitamin E  Thiamine: o Source: whole grain, nuts o Role: Metabolism, production of atp o Consequence of Deficiency  Beriberi: heart failure (wet), Lethargy/weakness (dry).  Problem in population eating white rice (not in canada)  Alcohol Depletes Thiamin (Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome o Toxicity: None known  Riboflavin o Sources: widespread in foods, best source in Canada is milk o Role: Production of ATP o Consequence of Deficiency  Ariboflavinosis: poor wound healing, cracks at corner of mouth o Toxicity: Non  Niacin o Sources: Meat, Fish, Whole Grains (mandatory for enriching pasta and flour) o Can be synthesized from essential AA trypotophan o Consequence: Pellagra  4 D: Dermatitis, darrhea, dementia, death  Southern US: more corn and niacin in corn is bound to protein so unavailable to diet  In south America, corn is treated with lime which releases bound niacin  Therapeutic use: Toxicity  500-2000mg used in treatment of cardiovascular disease: o Lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL; Lower serum Triglycerides o UL: 35MG o Toxicity:  Flushing: Burning, Tingling sensation in skin  Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea  High blood glucose  Abnormalities in liver function test.  Biotin: o Source: Liver, Egg yolk, Yogurt, Nuts, Raw egg whites containing avidin which binds biotin o Role: ATP production o Consequence: Unknown o Toxicity: Unkown  Pantothenic acid o Source: Meat, Eggs, Grains, Legumes o Role: Production of atp o Consequence: RARE o Toxicity: Unkown  B6 o Source: A lot o Role: Amino Acid Metabolism  Synthesis of nonessential amino acid by TRANSAMINATION (addition of nitrate group)  DEAMINATION for the production of atp and glucose  DECARBOXYLATION for the synthesis of neurotransmitter o Conseq
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