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Lecture 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Lecture 5 Science in Health Research What is science? More than just knowing by analysis The Scientific Method Experimentation - explore observations and answer questions Search for cause and effect relationships in nature Systematic, objective, analytical, and interpretative reproducible Short History of Scientific Methods 1600BC - Edwin Smith papyrus Components: examination, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis 400BC Democritus Inductive reasoning - draws conclusions from a observations 320BC Aristotle Subdivision of knowledge (physics, poetry, zoology, logic, rhetoric, politics, and biology) 300BC Euclids Elements Geometry 200BC First catalogued library Through to the 12 century Controlled experiments, methods of citation, peer review, open inquiry, development of consensus Experimental method: observations, experiments and rational arguments in Book of Optics The Canon of Medicine and Book of Healing - describes methods critical to inductive logic and the scientific method, and develops examination and experimentation as a means for scientific inquiry Through to the 21 century Roger Bacon - described a repeating cycle of observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and verification. Controlled experiments- by Francis Bacon - Novum Organum (1622) - induction Other events Galileo (15641642) the true method was being practiced by Galileo, who, with a combination of observation, hypothesis, mathematical deduction and confirmatory experiment founded the science of dynamics - Encyclopedia Britannica (1970) 1595 Microscope 1608 Telescope 1600 Laboratory 1637 Descartes Scientific Method
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