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Lecture 10

Lecture 10

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

+Lecture 10 - Epidemiology and demography in health research Epidemiological research designs Epidemiology: the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states in specified populations, and the application of this study to control health problems. Demography: The scientific study of human populations, including their size, composition, distribution, density, and growth as well as the causes and socioeconomic consequences of changes in these factors. (World Bank) Types of Epidemiology 1) Level upon which research focuses - Internally, within the body - Clinical epidemiology - Behaviorally - Social epidemiology - Contextually structurally - Critical epidemiology 2) Type of disease - Communicable-disease epidemiology - Chronic-disease epidemiology 3) Environment where the study takes place - Community epidemiology - Occupational epidemiology 4) Tools - Quantitative epidemiology - Popular Lay epidemiology Experimental versus Observational Studies Experimental: - exposure is varied to determine how many get the disease - Unethical Observational: - Occurrence of disease is observed in people who are exposed Study Designs Descriptive Studies - Disease and related factors are measured - e.g. incidence data, prevalence data, mortality data. When do we use descriptive study designs? - Health problem is suspected - Hypotheses formulation Limitation does exposure lead to outcome? Types of Descriptive Studies Correlational studies - Data from entire populations is used - Cannot link exposure to disease in the same person
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