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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA10 Lecture 10 April 4 , 2011. Epidemiology and demography in health researchEpidemiological research designs Epidemiology The study of the distribution and determinants of health related states in specified populations and the application of this study to control health problems Basic science of public health What are the factors that can cause the disease?Where is occurs? Health related states- measures of health, not just disease and mortality Focusing on populations Then it goes on to apply the study to control health problems; this is why its the basic science of public health Demography Study of human populations, including their size, composition, distribution and growth as well as the causes and socioeconomic consequences of changes in these factors Study of patterns in human populations Birth rates, death rates, immigration, emigration, etc. Anything related to the patterns of human populations Role in Health research Epidemiology: SubfieldsLevels A) Classified on Level upon which the research focuses on 1. Internal, within the body= Clinical Epidemiology (researches focus on an individual and want measurements for instance biochemical levels in individual) 2. Behaviour= Social epidemiology (considers determinants on development on health and disease) i.e. link between societies and tendency to uptake smoking individual behaviours 3. ContextualStructural; outside of the individual = Critical epidemiology (researches count on to get important policies into place; emphasis is on social and power relationships) contextual factors that would contribute to the health status of concerned populations B) Classified based on type of disease 1. Communicable disease epidemiology (focus on infectious diseases) 2. Chronic-disease epidemiology (certain diseases that are chronic) C) Classified based on environment where study takes place 1. Community epidemiology 2. Occupational epidemiology (classified based on the workplace; or diseases in a certain workplace) D) Classified based on tools 1. Quantitative epidemiology
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