History of Leprosy.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Zachariah Campbell

History of Leprosy: th th  Leprosy decreased in Europe during the 14 and 15 and increased throughout the continent in 18 century Middle ages bark the beginning of huge expansion of activities dedicated to exploration  and colonization of land  It has been stated that men under the command of Columbus introduced leprosy into North America (no evidence proving)  The first case of leprosy in Colombia were among the Spanish th  D.Pedro Alegre found the San Lazarus Hospital in Havana and on 27 July 1677, the king of Spain-Phillip 1V, said that any person with leprosy would be isolated in this hospital  The first mention of this disease in Brazil was in 1696, introduced by Portuguese and possibly the Africans  Africana slave trade was a major factor responsible for the development of leprosy in the western hemisphere. Acadians and Louisiana:  Leprosy was introduced into Louisiana by French Canadians (Arcadians) who were expelled by Canada by the British in 1755 (during the war). During the war many Arcadians were deported to Nova Scotia and migrated to West Indies and Louisiana.  Leprosy was prevalent in Louisiana by 1758 and was also known to arise in New Orleans (Spanish settles and slave trade and immigrants from Germany)  Many evidence show that many Acadians who departed from Nova Scotia were not responsible for leprosy. Scandinavians and Minnesota:  During the 19 century immigrants from Scandinavia and Norway travelled to the U.S  By 1900 there were 107 cases reported in the states where most of them were from Norway and some from Sweden and Iceland Origins of the National Leprosarium at Carville:  Problem started arising in other states, as a result it was propose din 1919 that the national leprosy hospital should be established-location presumed to be in Florida  Angel Island in San Francisco closed down due to public pressure and many Florida Keys (islands) were closed down because they were concerned about the tourist trade being exposed to disease by local citizens. Also the location of leprosarium in Florida was viewed as not being good for cigar and food  National Leprosarium in Carville Louisiana replaced the sight of Louisiana Leper Home in 1920. The “Father Damien of Louisiana”  Father Charles Boglioli, a priest, performed missionary work among Cajuns blacks and Indians. In 1866 he began to work at the charity hospital of new Orleans and get special attention t patients with leprosy “Spread to Africa”  It is hypothesized that Africa may have been the first continent on which leprosy affected humans. Sufan and Ethiopia are the most frequently mentioned areas,  In Egypt the disease may have existed as near as 200-300 BC, evidenced y finding skulls exhumed in leprosy  The disease may have been introduced into Egypt as a result of Persian invasion during the 16 thcentury BC or by the troops of Alexander the Great in 4 century BC Epidemics: Norway  Leprosy doesn’t necessarily hath to occur in tropical regions. There were many high cases of leprosy during the 19 century  The Norwegian problem is still unknown, but some factors are: result of seamen sailing to leprosy, resurgence of disease-dated back to Crusades  Some ways the cases of leprosy were reduced were by: isolation of patients and emphasis on birth confront and emigration of young men  The most significant reason for the decline was the improvement of standard of living Epidemics: New Guinea  According to Leiker leprosy was introduced initially into several islands of New Guinea and the disease initially spread to the interior of the islands.  The first cases of Leprosy were recorded near World War 2  There were slow increase of new cases followed by a rapid increase, most of which were of tuberculoid  The number of cases seemed to decline without any precautions taken from the natives. This proposed that the disease had been spread by contact with “non-infectious” turberculoid during the period of new cases  Similarly this pattern followed in Naru, New Caledonia and Micronesia.  It was stated to be that where tuberculosis has been a problem, leprosy does not affect the population as severely. This promoted trials of BCG vaccines, which could prevent tuberculosis and prevent leprosy. Epidemic: New Caledonia  Leprosy was introduced into the population as a result of exposure to four patients who were not native to this island who had been diagnosed with having the disease in 1863  80 percent of the native population became affected  The problem lessened due to sulfone therapy Epidemic: Nauru  The epidemic occurred on the island of Nauru during the early decades of this century  The majority of the diagnosed cases were of tuberculoid variety Epidemic: Micronesia  There was a special concern specifically on the island of Kapingamarangi  There were four cases of leprosy that were found near the islands. Two of which were tuberculoid and two were lepromatous-responsible for spread of disease  It is thought the disease was spread form Nauru  In Kapinga there were some cases that were tested and were seropositive by an enzyme – linked immunosorbent assay. This percentage of the natives were infected by Myobacteriu leprae but showed no clinical evidence of this disease Epidemic: Hawaii  The first reported was of leprosy in Hawaii was a woman who infected her sister and her two half-brothers as a result of visiting china  The disease was thought to be primarily the result of Chinese immigration  King Kamehameha created two faculties
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