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Health Studies
Zachariah Campbell

Tuberculosis: People’s Plague  Consumption was characterized in 1853 as nostalgia, depression and excessive sexual indulgence  Consumption is more commonly known as TB (White Plague)  In 1800s TB peaked in Western Europe, TB was considered to be beautiful and exotic  TB was a chronic infectious disease, it was romanticized A look Back:  TB of the lungs is called pulmonary TB is the form of the disease that we are most familiar with  When TB is localized in the lungs it can run an acute course, causing severe destruction, so called galloping consumption  TB can also infect the lungs and intestine and larynx and sometimes the lymph nodes of the neck are affected producing a swelling called scrofula  TB can produce the fusion of the vertebrae and the deformation of the spine called Pott’s disease.  This may lead to hunchback and call also affect the skin and the kidney  TB of the adrenal cortex destroys adrenal functions and results in Addison’s disease.  The microbes that cause TB are called mycobacteria. They are found in soil and water and they have a protective cell wall that is rich in unusual waxy lipids  The three mycobacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M.leprae and M.avium are pathogens respectively caused by TB, leprosy and a pulmonary disease with swollen glands in the neck  M.avium is an opportunistic infection that includes symptoms such as weigh lost, fevers, chills, diarrhea and weakness.  M.bovis is closely related to M.tuberolosis and it can infect people and grows in conditions were oxygen levels are low. However M.Tubercolosis grows best when oxygen is plentiful-associated with pulmonary TB  TB of the spin is associated with M.bovis and caused blood infections in the spine  M.bovis is thought to arise from soul bacteria and people became infected with this by drinking milk.  M.tuberolisis was specific to humans and spreads through person to person through droplets of saliva and mucus.  Tuberculosis disease of the lungs is more recent than that of the bones  It was suggest that evolved M.Tuberculosis evolved from M.bovis after cattle were domesticated  TB spread to the middle east, to the Indian tribes  Hippocrates called the disease phthisis meaning to waste, and noted that people had red checks and that I was cause of great suffering and death  He believed that the disease was due to evil air and did not consider it contagious  Aristotle suggest that it may be contagious due to bad and heavy breath  Galem, the theory of contagion of phthisis was accepted by the Roman Empire but the contagious agent was not found  During the Middle Ages the Royalty calmed that they had supernatural powers to health the disease, specifically scrofula. This was referred to as the royal touching  Tuberculosis refers to the characteristics of small knots or nodules. This was described by Franciscus Dylivius and he also describe there evolution into what he called lung ulcers  Benjamin Marten was the first person who speculated the infectious nature of TB and proposed that the cause was an animalcule (little animals seed) transmitted by breath.  The cause of the rise in TB was due to a demographic shift from rural to urban living as well as the creation of “town dairies”  These dairies had dairy cows which provided ideal conditions for animal to animal transmission as well as animal to human transmission  Textile industry became mechanized along with trade industry causing means to human to human transmission  The increase density of people provided ideal conditions for transmission of M. tuberculosis and pulmonary TB.  During the Victorian Ages, TB was attractive and it was believed that eroticism and procreation were blended with sickness and death  Viven Leigh developed TB in the hospital and later on streptomycin and isoniazid became available to treat TB  Incan mummy showed clear evidence of Pott’s disease. The spine had contained mycobacteria.  Domestic herd of cattle ad well as wild herbivores probably served for the source of the infection  TB wad found present in prehistoric America waiting for new human hosts. When population densities arose, the conditions of the spread of TB were favoured. It was prevalent in countries amongst the Atlantic cost  TB was not strictly an urban disease it was also present in rural areas. The critical element was not the total population by the size of the household  Inefficient heating and inadequate ventilation were also contributing favors in the spread of tuberculosis  In Boston and New York consumption came to be regarded as the “Jewish disease” or “trailer disease”. It was thought that Jews were highly susceptible to TB.  TB was used as a tool of anti-Semitism that justified the persecution of Jews  In 1900s poorer people tended to have a higher mortality from TB.  TB was a disease of Europe and North American and was absent from countries in Africa  Living in high altitudes the air was unpolluted and crisp and was considered beneficial, but this change in scene did not cure TB. Finding the Germ of TB  Jean-Antoine Billemin successfully transmitted tuberculosis in rabbits. TB was found in the lungs of the lymph nodes of those that had received the pus,  Herman Pidoux had said the consumption in the poor was due to conditions of povert
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