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Lecture 4

HLTA01 - Lecture 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Lecture 4 – Hansen’s disease (Leprosy)  Mentioned in the Egyptian papyrus document (1550 BC)  Ancient Indian writings 60 BC  Arrived in Rome in 62 BC  Present in ancient Greece after the time of Alexander the great  Disease of the soul  Thought to be a hereditary disease, might have been caused by a curse or a punishment from God  Lepers were stigmatized  Evidence of lepers burned at the stake/lost all rights and money if people found out they had this disease  Special clothing/arrival notification (clappers)  Leprosariums/Leper house  Special hospitals for lepers  First “leper house” in England in ~ AD 936  Middle of the 12 century Lepers suffered a loss of civic status th  13 century there were 1900 ‘leprosaria” in use Mass of Separation  A decline in Europe around AD 1350 with a spread to North America  1997 the last Leprosarium abolished and the lepers were set free  Leprosy still with us today  Lepros-lepra-leprosy  Father Damien- Martyr of Molokai, said disease was high infectious  Dr. Armauer Hansen (Norway 1873)  Discovered leprosy germ under a microscope  Mycobacterium leprae Etiology  Cannot be grown in tissue, only mice or armadillos  Bacteria slowly multiply (12 – 14 doubling time)  Incubation period of 3 -5 years  Thought to be transmitted via droplets from the nose  Not highly infectious, and there appears to be some genetic susceptibility  Affects skin, nerves, and mucous membranes  Low virulence  Trend was cyclic, and disease is not distributed equally globally  Vaccine for Tuberculosis makes you less susceptible to getting Leprosy  Brazil, India, Africa have the highest occurrence of cases worldwide  Rod shaped producing bacteria  Chronic disease Risk  Leprosy can affect people of all races all around the world  Most common in warm, wet areas and in the tropics and subtropics  Most common between age 10 – 14 and 35 -44 years  Rarely observed in infants  Natural resistance in blacks but low in white people  Males infected more than females Clinical manifestations (least to worst-depends on immune systems of the hosts)  Indeterminate (IL)  Tuberculoid (TT)  Borderline Tuberculoid (BT)  Borderline Lepromatous (BL)  Lepromatous (LL)  males show a higher prevalence to leprosy than females Indeterminate Leprosy (IL)  earliest and mildest form  usually few lesions  loss of sensation rare Tuberculoid Leprosy (TT)  large lesions  los
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