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Lecture 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Lecture 5 – Tuberculosis History  Tuberculosis present since antiquity  Present in Egyptian mummies  “Phthisis” or “Consumption” were terms commonly used to refer to Tuberculosis  Hippocrates though tuberculosis was due to bad air but wasn’t contagious  Tuberculosis is documented in Egypt, India, and China about 5000, 3300, and 2300 years ago respectively  Skeletal abnormalities and deformities in the spin are typical  Tuberculosis was limited to animals in prehistoric times and epidemics arose from changes in the population and environment in which hosts resided  People with this disease believed to be beautiful, pale skin, red cheeks and thin figure  There were claims that the Royal family possessed supernatural powers capable of healing of afflicted with Tuberculosis.  Queen Anne was the last Monarch to perform the Royal Touching/King’s Evil  In 1629 tuberculosis (consumption) was the leading cause of death in London  In peaked 1780 --> 20% of death was from tuberculosis  Franciscus D Sylvius discovered the lung nodules; tubercles  Not sure of spread of source of the disease  Benjamin Marten speculated that tuberculosis was contagious  1800’s tubercthosis spread to the rest of Europe and North America  During the 19 century tuberculosis was romanticized because people with tuberculosis were seen as attractive and physically fit  1854 the idea that tuberculosis is a curable disease led to the creation of sanatoriums; a place for people with tuberculosis to heal and rest  Jean Antoine Villemin speculated that a specific microorganism is the primary cause of tuberculosis  Dr. Robert Koch discovered mycobacterium tuberculosis and developed the “tuberculin” test  Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen used X-rays to diagnose a person with tuberculosis  Technique still used to confirm a diagnosis of tuberculosis Etiology  Agent: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis which is an acid fast bacillus  Three main types:  Type I – found in India, and is the least virulent  Type A – Africa, China, Japan, Europe, North America  Type B – exclusively in Europe and North America Forms of Tuberculosis (symptoms don’t really appear)  Several types of tuberculosis  Only Bovin type may lead to pulmonary tuberculosis (most common) or miliary tuberculosis (acute)  Miliary tuberculosis is fatal within days or weeks, and infects all organs of the body  Tuberculosis is spread through the air by coughs or sneezes  Each sneeze can contain up to 100 000 droplets and each droplet has roughly 1 – 3 bacilli  Infection can remain dormant until resistance fails, resulting in the active form of the disease  Indefinite and variable incubation period  A host cannot spread tuberculosis unless they have the active form of TB; TB within the lungs  Left untreated a person wi
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