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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 Notes

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Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Semester
Fall

Description
HLTA01 – Lecture 10 Notes Thursday, November 22 , 2012 1918 Influenza/HIV - AIDS 1918 Influenza History  Origin of cause is unknown  Hippocrates: first record of an influenza pandemic in the year 412 B.C.  Three main pandemics of influenza existed in the 16 , 18 , and 19 century o About 30 pandemics have occurred since the 1500s o Occurs about three times in a decade, roughly  Since 1580, there have been thirty-one additional flu pandemics recorded  Spanish Flu (1918 - 1919): o Origin of name: Not because it was originally from Spain but because there was no censorship in Spain in relation to the pandemic that occurred (were really open about number of cases and etc) o Approximately 50 M deaths worldwide in less than 2 years o 500,000 death in the US (19,000 in New York City) o 300,000 cases in Ontario - 8700 death (1200 deaths in Toronto in just 3 weeks) o 500,000 cases and 14,000 deaths in Quebec  Occurred after WW1  Affected the younger population more than the older population, which is bizarre compared to other flues  Cities like Boston had prevention such as mouth masks to prevent the spread of the Spanish Flu o In some cases were fined if you didn’t o Until 1940s-1950s, not much was known about the cause of influenza  Reason behind so many preventative measures  H1N1 strain  Connected to Swine Flu Symptoms  Fever, chills, headache, weakness and fatigue as well as coughing, sneezing, runny nose (coryza)  Residual cough and tiredness lasts up to 6 weeks  Complications can include ear infections, pneumonia, dehydration and death HLTA01 – Lecture 10 Notes Thursday, November 22 , 2012 1918 Influenza/HIV - AIDS  Figure 1: o Differentiation between Influenza flu and the common cold Etiology  Level 10 flu: If no preventative measures are taken, can infect 10 others around them with the Influenza virus  3 types of influenza virus: Influenzavirus A (most virulent), B, &C  Influenza A and C infect multiple species, while influenza B almost exclusively infects humans o Influenza B and C are more commonly linked to epidemics that occur (least virulent)  Influenza A virus has 8 genes o Has genetic instability, can mutate very easily o Has a very short incubation period: 1-2 days o Can easily be transmitted from one individual to another o Spread by droplets; each droplet contains about 50,000-500,000 virus particles  New and virulent (Influenza A virus) flu strains are produced mainly from the effects of two surface proteins o Hemagglutinin (H) – critical to virus entry into cell (the gate to enter) o Neuraminidase (N) – allows virus to leave host cell after replication and move from cell to cell (the exit)  There are over 15-16 H’s and 9 different N’s in bird flu viruses o Different combinations of H’s and N’s cause different strains  Flu virus from birds - unable to replicate well in humans unless they move to an intermediate host: chickens, geese, ducks o Since they can fly, can spread virus more efficiently o Pollute waterways with feces  birds use the water to bath and drink from  become infected o Chickens die off quickly due to infection, while pigs are more resistant and can survive for some time nd HLTA01 – Lecture 10 Notes Thursday, November 22 , 2012 1918 Influenza/HIV - AIDS o Figure 2:  Specific to the H5N1 strain (Avian flu) o Figure 3:  Flu genes of birds, pigs, humans can mix and produces new strains Antigenic drift:  Random mutations that change the genes causing the virus to change  Figure 4: HLTA01 – Lecture 10 Notes Thursday, November 22 , 2012 1918 Influenza/HIV - AIDS Epidemiology  Occurs globally, year-round o 20% attack rate in children and 5% attack rate in adults  Have seasonal patterns related to human practices o Ie. Being near chicken  Serotypes that have been confirmed in humans (ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths): o H1N1: ‘Spanish Flu’ (refer to end of 2 paragraph, p. 398 of course textbook) o H2N2: ‘Asian Flu’ o H3N2: ‘Hong Kong Flu’  Thought to be of avian strain o H5N1: Pandemic threat in 2007–8 flu season  Mass slaughter of chicken to protect human population/public o H7N7 o H1N2: endemic in humans and pigs o H9N2, H7N2, H7N3, H10N7 o H1N1: ‘Swine Flu’ 2009 o Figure 5:  Time line of influenza nd HLTA01 – Lecture 10 Notes Thursday, November 22 , 2012 1918 Influenza/HIV - AIDS  Figure 6: o Mutations of virus and forecast of next influenza virus Mode of Transmission  Respiratory Droplets: Contain the virus and are expelled into the air by coughing, sneezing or talking and enter the body through a person’s mucous membranes o Ie. nose, mouth  Direct Contact: The virus spreads from person-to-person from the hands of an infected person. A person touches their mucous membranes with their contaminated hands.  Indirect Contact: The virus spreads from one person to another by touching surfaces or objects contaminated with the virus. A person touches their mucous membranes with their contaminated hands. Prevention  Vaccines  Must be predicted by scientists before the outbreak occurs o Can make people either sick or actual prevent the virus, depending if forecasted correctly or not  Sanitation of hands  Covering coughs (with sleeve or fabrics other than skin)  Containing germs to self nd HLTA01 – Lecture 10 Notes Thursday, November 22 , 2012 1918 Influenza/HIV - AIDS  Figure 7: o Reported cases and deaths globally; sometimes hold back on reporting due to economic loss due to stigma of illness  Figure 8: o H1N1 Flu (‘Swine Flu’) – 2009 Influenza  Figure 9: o H1N1 Confirmed cases in Canada nd HLTA01 – Lecture 10 Notes Thursday, November 22 , 2012 1918 Influenza/HIV - AIDS HIV/AIDS  Cause of origin isn’t well known  HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus): attacks the immune system resulting in chronic, progressive illness that leaves people vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers o Refer to textbook pg 90  Results in AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) when the body can no longer fight infection  On average, it takes more than 10 years for the disease to progress from HIV infection to AIDS  AIDS was first reported in the US in 1981 Etiology
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