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HLTA01 Lecture 07 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA01 Lecture 07  Measles were not mentioned by Hippocrates  Attributed to Rhazes (900 AD) associated with a Persian scientist and he believed smallpox and measles came from the same cause  Aka = rubeola, hard, measles, red measles, morbilli, hasbah  Prevailing theory = red rash represented the mother’s menstrual blood accumulated during pregnancy and when the person gets rid of the measles it was thought they got rid of the “poison”  Origins of term “measles” = ‘misellus’ or ‘misella’ i.e. miserable  Modern history of measles:  1670- Thomas Sydenham’s, he was the first to clinically distinguish between smallpox and measles; did all this through his son’s attack  Around this time they rejected the mother’s blood theory  1757 – Francis Homes demonstrated the infective nature by transmitting infected blood from a child and injected into other uninfected child  Encephalitis complication of the brain results from measles, herpes virus, chickenpox etc.  Peter Ludwig Panum  a scientist sent by the Danish government to investigate the epidemic in Faeroe Isles  first epidemiological study  geographically this place is ideal for epidemiology (roughly between Iceland and Scotland)  why it was an ideal place = lots of mountains causing clustered population, lots of island so movements of boats and people from island to island, weather is cool and damp  how he did this investigation and what helped him: arrival of a boat noted, visits from mainland were rare, epidemic originated in a single seaman and upon arrival he had not recovered and became infectious, and this helped him find the path of the epidemic and found four important facts 1. rash appears 12-14 days after contact with an infected person; gave an indication of an incubation period 2. infectivity is the greatest 2-4 days before the rash appears and still infectious until the rash leaves 3. contagious nature of disease – respiratory route of transmission, droplets 4. life-long immunity; once you had it, you don’t fall sick again from this disease  Hektoen (1910) demonstrated that measles was present in the blood, and this is how it move through the body  John Enders (1963) successful in isolating the virus and producing vaccine to prevent this disease  1969 - Relationship between measles and sub-acute sclerosing pan-encephalitis (= develops 5-10 years after acute measles)  Etiology of measles:  Belongs to paramyxoviridae  Genus – mobillivirus  Infection of the respiratory system  Incubation period 7-14 days  Direct contact from nose and throat secretions  Period of communicability (infectious period) 4days before until 4 days after rash appears  Highly contagious  Virus c
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