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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 Notes

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA01 – Lecture 11 Notes Thursday, November 29 , 2012 Plagues without Germs Dietary-Deficient Diseases th th  Some date back as far as the 15 century but mostly are from the 19 century o When the ‘germ theory’ was accepted o ‘One germ, one disease’ theory 1. Pellagra (Red Plague)  First described in Spain in 1735  Italian for: o ‘pelle’ = Skin o ‘agra’ = Rough  Initially starts off as a rash on the skin, then slowly crusts and peels away Clinical symptoms:  4Ds o Dermatitis o Diarrhea o Dementia o (Can lead to) Death  1909: Epidemic in US; 26 states  1912: High fatality rates o Ie. South America = 40% th  20 century: 3 million cases and 100 000 deaths in US  Belief: It was an infectious disease specific to the poor  1939: Evidence establish by Conrad Elvehjem that the disease was due to niacin- deficiency (Vitamin B3 deficiency) o Niacin is needed for normal oxidative metabolism of sugars 2. Beriberi (‘White rice’ Plague)  1616: First described and thought to be a neurological disorder characterized by paralysis of the hands and feet o Feet  Not strong enough to stand o ‘Kakke’ in Japanese = Leg disease  Observed that white rice was related to beriberi o If you consumed very large portions/too much white rice in diet o First seen in sailors from Japan, immigrants from China and Malaysia o Was still debated that it could be due to germ  Early 1900s: Eijkman established that disease is not germ-related  Experiment: HLTA01 – Lecture 11 Notes Thursday, November 29 , 2012 Plagues without Germs  o Conducted experiment where split up eleven chicken into 4 groups:  Group one had 3 chickens: 1 sick and 2 healthy being fed unpolished rice  Group two had 4 chickens: all healthy being fed polished rice.  Group three had 2 chickens: both injected with bacteria being fed unpolished rice.  Group four had 2 chickens: both healthy being fed unpolished rice. (Control) o Kept these chickens on their diets for 5 weeks, with these results:  Group one: The sick chicken recovered, all were healthy.  Group two: All chickens became sick.  Group three: The chickens remained healthy.  Group four: The chickens remained healthy.  By 1926: Deficiency in vitamin B1 (thiamine) was established as a cause of Beriberi o Thiamine is necessary for normal cell metabolism of sugars and alcohol  lack of can cause cell death, therefore neurological problems o Casimir Funk came up with term of ‘vitamin’ 3. Scurvy (‘Explorers’ disease/Plague of the Sea) Symptoms: o Hands and feet
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