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HLTA01 Lecture 06 Notes.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA01 Lec. 06 (Smallpox) [Oct. 25. 12]  Everyone was susceptible to this disease  May have come from other pox related disease  Earliest evidence was on Egyptian mummies: Pharaoh Ramses V, had pox marks  Plague of Antonine is suspected to be the first epidemic of small pox  We’ve been hearing it since 5 century but several epidemics were reported near 12 th centuries  Episodes:  Plague of Antonine – the fall of the roman empire, believed to have started in Mesopotamia and thought to have come in through the returning soldiers to Italy  New World in the 16 century, introduction of the Spanish and Portuguese – led to the fall of the Aztecs and the Incas due to the susceptibility  During colonization to the settlement of N. America by the French and English people, the colonization made it easier to spread small pox and set off an epidemic on the Indians  Smallpox was the first biological warfare  Deliberately use of smallpox to win the war in the French-Indian War, and smallpox infected blankets were used to win the war  Helped for slave trade, due to the death from the smallpox so they had to have slave trade  The major breakthrough was through this biological warfare  The virus Genus - Orthopoxvirus is the largest known virus and the family = Poxviridae; this virus can be seen with the light microscope  The common name for the Orthopoxvirus Poxviridae = Variola virus (has two strains)  Variola minor is the most virulent type and the major is the least virulent  Orthopoxvirus : cowpox, camelpox, chickenpox and mousepox (ectromelia) viruses all cause mild diseases in human  Mousepox is zoonotic and is very similar to smallpox  However there are some who have gotten vaccinated but died right after due to the infected vaccine and some may not be effected (for Variola major)  Virulent type of smallpox = hemorrhagic smallpox or black pox…internal bleeding in the mucous membrane and mortality rate is very high, forms of variola major  Has to be continuously transmitted from human to human and they do not become long term carrier due to the transmission after being infected…otherwise smallpox will not live  Must be transmitted directly through inhalation of aerosols or contaminated fomites  Multiplies in the mucous membrane of the mouth however no symptoms for the first week of infections until it moves to the lymph nodes, internal organs and finally to the bloodstream  Average incubation period of 12-14 days  Only viable for 2 days outside the human host  Acute onset where the rash appears the 9th day  Symptoms = fever, malaise, rigors, vomiting, headache, backache, and occasionally delirium (delusions)  The symptoms depends on the smallpox and how susceptible the humans are  Stages  Lesions (2-3 days after), pustules scabs and heal (8-14 days), and can lead to severe scarring  Days 1-3 = pre-eruption phase; days 6-10 = papules & pustules  Distribution = face, palm, and feet  Once it falls off, no longer infectious  Not a chronic infection/disease  Encountered variola major, the severe form, very dense with the pox  Has caused blindness on 1/3 of the people who get this disease  Indiscriminate disease since anyone can get it  Childhood disease, children will mostly get it since they have weak immunity due to less exposures to other diseases  As vaccination uptake increase, the death rate started to decrease  Vario
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