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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 In-class Notes [Malaria

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Lecture 8 - Malaria History - One of the oldest diseases known to mankind that continues to have huge social, economical and health consequences in many countries - Earliest records found in the Chinese medical text, the Nei Chang (2700 BC) - The Hippocratic corpus was the rst document to mention the splenic change in malaria and related malaria to ingestion of stagnant water: those who drink [stagnant water] have always large, stiff spleens and hard, thin, hot stomachs, while their shoulders, collarbones, and faces are emaciated; the fact is that their esh dissolves to feed the spleen... - Belief that the fever recurred during the sickly summer season - resulting from poisonous vapours that emante from the marshes - malaria i.e. bad air - Reached Spain and Russia by the 12th century and England by the 14th Century - Brought to the new world by European explorers, colonists, andAfricans - By the 1800s it was worldwide - Dante [1265-1321] wrote about malaria: As one who has the shivering of the quartan so near, that he has his nails already pale, and trembles all, still keeping the shade, such I became when those words were uttered. (The Inferno) He died of malaria - William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616), mentioned argue (english word for malaria) in 8 of his plays - Charles LouisAlphonse Laveran (1845-1922) - rst to observe black-brown malaria pigment and mobile laments emerging from clear spherical bodies in the red blood cells of infected blood - a process he called exagellation (1880) - First to identify the malaria parasite - 1883 - Robert Koch, developed an interest in malaria and the role of the mosquito during his visit to India. In 1898, he went to Italy and argued that human malaria was caused by a mosquito bite but was unsuccessful in his efforts Ronald Ross&Patrick Manson - Mentored by Manson, Ross performed a series of experiments designed to establish the link between malaria and mosquitoes - Ross examined the stomachs of thousands of mosquitos - He observed wartlike oocysts that developed 4-5 days after feeding on infected blood and the stripes or ridges that develop in them 7-8 days later - He discovered the infectious stages in the mosquito salivary glands in sparrows - In September 1898, Italian physician Giovanni Battista Grassi was able to report that the Anopheles claviger, was the carrier of human malaria Epidemiology (WHO, 2006) - Killed more than half the people who have ever lived on this planet - Every 10-30 seconds a person dies of malaria - 300-500 M cases of malaria each year (90% inAfrica) - 2-3M deaths annually - Of these deaths, the overwhelming majority is among children aged 5 years or younger - Anopheles mosquitoes must be present - WHO reports that malaria is currently endemic in over 100 countries, which are visited by more than 125 million international travelers annually 1
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