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HLTA01 Lec Malaria.docx

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Health Studies
Sandy Romain

HLTA01 Lec Malaria 05/03/2013 7:23:00 AM History  2700 BC – Chinese medical texts  400 BC – Greece, Hippocrates, Romans  1880 – Discovery of malaria parasite o something distinctive in the blood o Alphonse Laveran  1886 – Differentiation of species o Camillo Golgi  1897 – Discovered mosquito transmission o Ronald Ross won noble prizes o Central America  George Washington and Alexander the Great contracted malaria Panama Canal 1095-1910  Stories of people going into forest and never came out o All die of malaria  1906 when construction just begin o 26,000 employees, 21,000 hospitalized for malaria  1912 o 50,000 employees, 5,600 hospitalized for malaria o reduce in 6 years  understanding of mosquito as vector  they drain pool  cut grass  use oil as lavacide  kill adult mosquito Plasmodium  Falciparum o Highest risk of fatality  Vivax o Most common, seldom fatal  Ovale o Seldom fatal, may relapse  Malariae o Most benign and may emerge years later (4-5) Vector =mosquito  Anopheles (gambiae) o Dusk to dawn feeder o Only females as they need blood meal to reproduce o No male malaria Global distribution of malaria vectors  There are 450 types of mosquito  Only 30-40 anopheles can transmit to human  US is mostly eradicated Other Forms of transmission  Transplacentally (mother to child) o Children under 5 and pregnant mother are at risk  Blood transfusions o Without sterilization  Shared needle use o (IV drug use or medical uses) Host Risk Factors  Evolve from primate  Genetic factors (positive) o Sickle Cell Trait  Those who have sickle cell trait are less susceptible  Higher rate of sickles cell, less malaria o Thalassemias and G6PD deficiency o Negative Duffy factor  Do not have a opening in red blood cell  Acquired immunity o Have high effect on age group that is effected  Babies have it have 6 months  Pregnancy o Up carbon dioxide o And they use washroom at ni
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