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Lec Measles .docx

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Health Studies
Sandy Romain

HLTA01 Measles 26/02/2013 7:24:00 AM Rubeola  10 day measles  English measles  Red measles  Hard measles o Rubella (German measles)  o Roseola History of Measles  Sufficient population sizes to support measles did not exist prior to 2500 BC o No record before that o Cannot exist due to small population sizes  Confused with smallpox and other rash diseases for much of history  Rhazes differentiated between measles and smallpox in 910 AD o Smallpox and measles were confused even though it looks different o There are variability of diseases that are often confused in the pass Peter Panum  1846- the Faroe Island is easy for him to study o there are around 8000 people  6100 / 7864 inhabitants infected  102 deaths  Virgin population for 65 years – no immunity o Anybody who became in contact with these people will be susceptible to the disease Faroe Islands  Visits from mainland were rare and well documented o Because it was really rare  Epidemic originated with a single arriving sailor  4 key facts: o Rash appears 12-14 days after contact with infected person o Infectivity greatest 3-4 days before rash appears o Respiratory transmission o Life-long immunity Paramyxovirus (Pathogen)  Morbillivirus o Similar viruses infect many animal species, but measles is specific to humans – no reservoirs  It’s a benefit when it comes to vaccination o Highly infectious  90% would be infected when it comes into contact o Respiratory transmission , close personal contact or direct contact with secretions  Can be infectious 4 days before symptoms appear o Natural infection creates life-long immunity  Infants can get immunity from mother that last 6 months Host Risk Factors  Anyone not immunized o There are 2 schedule for MMR  Children <5 yrs  Malnutrition o Affect ability to be infected  Vitamin A insufficiency  HIV/AIDS or immunecompromised  Pregnancy – for both mother and baby Environmental Risk Factors  Weak health infrastructure  Countries recovering from natural disaster or conflict o When individuals are crowed in a area (high population density) and when the population is not vaccinated Clinical Symptoms  red spot with a white dot in the center  rash start from forehead down  fever could be go higher than 106  the rash fade the same order as it starts Complications  30% of all measles cases develop complications: o Pneumonia – leading cause of death o Ear infections – in 10% of cases which may cause permanent hearing loss o Diarrhea – causing dehydration  Children that are malnourish could die o Eye infections – may cause blindness o Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)  Fatal degenerative neurological disease  Could show up from 1month to 27 years  Cause by measles virus in the brain  Are rare but can happen Treatment  No antiviral treatment exists for measles  Supporting care including nutrition and oral rehydration solution  Antibiotics for select symptoms (eye and ear infections and pneumonia)  Vitamin A supplements o Extremely important o 2 doses of vitamin A o reduce death by 15% o reduce lost of eyesight Vaccination  US immunization is higher than Canada for children o Due to the uptake Challenges to Vaccination  Vaccination and immunization is the same a. Understanding o Biomedical vs. other concepts of health, wellness and body  Are often taken for granted o Concepts of pathogens, infection, prevention, antibodies and vaccines  Why take vaccine for a disease that’s not there? o Education  Need to put it in a sense that people would accept vaccination (hard to communicate with people) b. Attitudes, belief and trust o Personal rights versus population health  94% of the population need to be immunize for the
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