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HLTB21H3 (204)

lecture 4

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Hist ory of tuberc ulosisw hite plague - since antiquity - Egyptian mu mmi es from 2400 BC - phthisis or consumption (Greek literat ure) - Hippo crates - most widespr ead and fatal disease suggestion that TB was lim ited to animals until domestication of cattleother animals changes in the host population and environm ent - led to TB - Contagion - caused by invisible germs in the lungs - prevalence increased dram atically in 16 th- 18th(Europ e, Nort h America) - Consumption (1629) - 20% of all deaths in London - 1679 Franciscu s Delaboe Sylvius - lung nodules tubercles - 1720 Ben jamin Marten - germ theory may be comm unicable from one individual to another - 1839 tuberculosis - 1854 Dr. Her ma nn Brehmer - Tuberculosis is a Curable Disease sanatorium in Silesia, Ger ma ny - rest, fresh air, good nutrition and isolation - treatmen t-spe cializing in diagnosis and recovery of patients - 1854 Jean-Antoine Villemin - microorg anism as the cause of the disease - 1882 Dr. Robert Koch -- mycobacterium tuberculosis (same bacterium as the one that caused lepros y) - 1895 Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen - use of radiation to access the prog ression of disease - 1920 -195 0 know mo re with the imp rovemen t of technology - mass screening programs implemented based on: tuberculin, x-rays - Koch can find out if someone has tuberculosis (lesions of the disease) Et iology - agent: tubercle bacillus germ mycobacterium tuberculosis - acid-fast bacillus (treated with different dyes and is not decolorized on subsequent treatment with a mineral acid) - 3 main types of hum an bacillus: Typ e 1 - found in India; least virulent Typ e A - Africa, China, Japan, Europe, North America Type B - Exclusively in Europe and North America (mo ves up from 1 A B) - animal form s of the bacillus - only bovine types can affect hum ans ingested through digestive tra ct via milk and milk products may lead to pulmonary TB (most com mon) may lead to milia ry tuberculosis - acute form that form s grain-like tubercles in almost every org an of the body - infantsy oung children - fatal within few weeksdays - contrac ted affects lungs but can spread to other part s of the body (central nervous system, bones, joints) - spread through air by coughs or sneezes - drop let nuclei (airborn e part icles) can contain 1-3 bacilli inhaled, and can infect - sneeze = 100 000 droplets - when enter the body, bacilli can remain viable throu ghout the hosts lifetime
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