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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 Notes

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Lecture 9 November 3rd, 2011 • Epidemiology: malaria killed hald of the people that ever lived on this planet -it came from ancient times -every ten to thirty seconds a person dies from malaria -90% cases tend to be in Africa -majority of malaria cases happens to children five or under • prevails in rural, tropical areas -different types of parasites 1. plasmodium falciparum(more deadly): found in the tropics 2. p.falciparum: causes • reporting of malaria is an issue in many countries -differences between colours in map: sensitive to certain kinds of treatment • 2006 map: dark blue- malaria transmission -light blue: limited risks of malaria -white: no endemic cases of malaria -incidence and prevalence are important to know in areas • another measure of malaria: spleen rates (enlarges spleen at a particular time) -children 2-9 • global malaria cases: darkest colours indicate that they are very common or endemic -gray: malaria free region -a big cause of concern is the tropics • another map: dark blue: control measures must be put in place and are in place to combat this disease -light blue: pre elimination phase (relate this to David Klydeʼs study) • little or no control is in Africa or sub Saharan Africa • study: global malaria -people look at this disease because it is so ancient and continues to affect a large number of the population -a lot of research has been put in place to seek rates -many people expose to malaria are at a lower risk then previously thought • no longer endemic in canada but it remains an important disease in immigrants and travelers -cases vary from year to year -generally in canada there are around 400 cases a year -only 30-50% of cases are reported to public health agencies -true number of imported cases may be a little bit higher in this case • Reported malaria in the U.S.: 8000 cases of malaria -62% were from sub-saharan africa • Acute flu-like illness causes by plasmodium parasite -170 species of this but only 4 are specific to humans -plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum are popular types of malaria -p vivax and ovale may come back after many years • malaria is caused by the bite of the female anopheles species mosquito -must be infected with one of the four species of plasmodium genus parasite -migrates to the s
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